Caleb Fridell

  • Reading Assignment: “A Mother” and “Grace” from James Joyce’s Dubliners.

    Writing Assignment: Write a research question, following the advice from the assignment sheet for the third paper (under the assignments […]

    • James Joyce writes in a specific style and theme that stays concrete throughout all the passages of the book. I want to concentrate on the theme of paralysis on the characters and how it serves as an epiphany to the storyline. I would also like to skew my attention to the plots of the stories and compare Dublin to outside cities to discuss the routine that the characters follow and their desperate desire to get out of it.

  • Reading Assignment: “Clay,” “A Painful Case,” and “Ivy Day in the Committee Room,” from James Joyce’s Dubliners.

    Writing Assignment: Write a short response to one of the stories. The prompt is open-ended: y […]

    • In “ A Painful Case” Joyce maintains the theme of loneliness and how the routine that the characters are so used to following creates a dull lifestyle. Mr. Duffy’s name roots from the word “dark” in Irish shadowing the mood set throughout the story and suggest how his life might be. Mr. Duffy’s residence is symbolic in that it represents love and connection between people. The neighborhood was Mr. Duffy’s decision to reside in order to distance himself from the busy, set life of Dublin. This becomes the location of love connecting him with Mrs Sinico.
      This theme of routine is a concrete statement in all of the stories that Joyce writes in this book. In “A Little Cloud”, Little Chandlear sees life out of Dublin as an opportunity for his career as a poet. He knows Dublin is not a place to birth creativity, but he becomes indecisive about his decision to move. He wants to keep his Irish roots in his name as he builds his career in London. The story ends off with Little Chandelier confused with his decision just like in “Eveline”. Eveline debates her decision to either flee with her lover or stay back home in Dublin where she knows she would continue to live her same life. Unlike all the characters in the previous stories, Mr Duffy’s decision to move away from Dublin proves what a bright and new life outside of the routinist lifestyle can bring.

  • Reading Assignment: “The Boarding House,” “A Little Cloud,” and “Counterparts,” from Dubliners.

    Writing Assignment: In a short response, choose one short passage from one of the three stories and write a c […]

    • “The Boarding House,” marriage has two meanings in this story. Mrs. Mooney’s and Mr. Doran’s show that marriage is more about social standards, public perception than about feelings. Mrs. Mooney shows the challenges that a single mother of a daughter faces, but her scheme to marry Polly into a higher class come to show otherwise in this story. Mrs. Mooney does prostitute her daughter. She insists that Polly leave her office job and stay at home at the boarding house. What Mrs. Mooney argues is that men should carry the same responsibility as women in love affairs, but while she still tries to get rid of her daughter so easily.

  • Reading Assignment: “Eveline,” “After the Race,” and “Two Gallants,” from James Joyce’s Dubliners.

    Writing Assignment: Write a short response to one of the stories. The prompt is open-ended: you may choose to […]

    • “Eveline” by James Joyce story shows Eveline’s story of holding onto the past when facing the future. She reflects the conflicting pull many women in early twentieth-century Dublin felt between a domestic life rooted in the past and the possibility of a new married life abroad. One moment, Eveline feels happy to leave her hard life in the past , yet at the same time she worries about keeping promises she made to her mother who passed away. She reads the letters she does have to both her father and brother, where she reveals her inability to let go of those family relationships. She wants to stay to the older memories and imagines what other people want her to do. She sees Frank as a rescuer, saving her from her domestic situation.She is unable and stuck on not being able to make a desicion with running away with her lover which is another major part in this story.

    • The three stories “Eveline,” “After the Race,” and “Two Gallants,” from James Joyce’s Dubliners, continues to carry out similar notions surrounding relationships and reflection. “Eveline” surrounds the difficulties people have balancing or concentrating on life after eloping.The story introduces Eveline who is confident to marry her lover Frank and start a new life. After thinking and reminiscing about her past, she quickly changes her mind and gets anxious. She recalls without intention her abusive father and brother who are not active figures in her life. Even with the negative correlation that she has with her family members, she continued to keep in touch with them by writing letters. This shows her involvement with her past life, something that she would lose after running away because she would be far away from them. She suddenly is approached with an epiphany and realizes that she doesn’t want to repeat or relive the life that her dead mother had went through so she decides she will run away. But that thought doesn’t last long. Her indecisiveness shows the concrete relationship that one has with the routine that they have been following for so many years, just like Eveline has in her life in Dublin. She is paralyzed and can’t seem to come to a conclusion for herself, a common theme seen in all the stories in Dublin. The excuses and explanations that she makes up in her head, seem to go back to one thing, her life in Dublin. She won’t let go of the life and routine that she has been following for so many years, similar to “An Encounter” when two boys step out of routine and encounter a bizarre situation with an elderly man. It is unclear what Evelyn ends up doing but it’s obvious that she cannot fathom on a decision that leaves her to feel closure.

    • “The Boarding House” gives readers two sides of marriage one that requires compromise and loss and the other that allows for promise and profit. After splitting with her abusive husband, Ms. Mooney who becomes “the Madam”, opens a boarding house to sustain a living for herself and her children. Her daughter stays back at home with her mother, and she finds herself overwhelmed with the number of men that surround her. Soon enough, she gets into a relationship with one of the boys. Instead of interfering, Ms Mooney observer vs the relationship between the two. After some time Ms. Mooney pressures Mr Doran to propose to Molly for the sake of keeping their reputation clean to the public eye. He reassures Polly but then again feels unsettled that he is marrying someone down the hierarchy and with no oe to support his decision. Like “Eveline” the indecisive thoughts linger Mr Dorans head because he does not want to break norms or routine, something that might affect him negatively. This story represents the perfect picture that everyone tries to maintain in society. The marriage in this passage was proposed in order to get rid of suspension and confirm stability.

  • Reading Assignment: Please read the stories “The Sisters,” “An Encounter,” and “Araby” from Dubliners by James Joyce. (You can find a PDF under the readings tab.) I would like for you to read all of the stories, […]

  • Bring a paper copy of your draft of the second essay to class on Monday. You can find the instructions under the “assignments” tab on this website.

    I will ask for volunteers to present their ideas from the […]

  • Reading Assignment: Karl Marx, “The Sale and Purchase of Labour-Power,” from Capital.

    Writing Assignment: In a short response, try to explain, in your own words, what you take to be an important argument from […]

    • In “The Sale and Purchase of Labour-Power,” written by Karl Marx he argues about capitalism. He creates and points out ideas of how business basically functions. These are many arguments Marx makes in Chapter 6 relating to business and economic functions. And one of these is he argues as an example how there should be a one to one relationship with the buyer and seller so that it is equal. He says that he must explain how someone can buy commodities at their value, sell them at their value, and also make a profit. He states that the individual must be selling his labor power as a commodity. This means that he must own his own person and he and the owner of money must meet in the marketplace as legal equals. And the only way to treat his labor as his own property, he must be willing to put it at the buyer’s disposal.

  • Reading Assignment: Read the Elizabeth Bowen story “Demon Lover.” It is short, so it will be helpful to read it twice, to see how your interpretation changes once you know the ending. Take notes, as always, on the […]

    • In her story, “The Demon Lover,” Elizabeth Bowen demonstrates a theme of conflict with the main character, Mrs. Kathleen Drover. Her memories impression her with guilt as she is left traumatized when she remembers the unfulfilled promised she had was mandated to keep. Continuously in a distorted position, her eyes see the world utterly different whether it’s of herself or others because the messages that the neurons send to her brain can only translate to worry and constant panic. She has been living an off-balance lifestyle that merges with expected stereotypical standards and personal desires. She created a false identity for herself to camouflage in and act as society found acceptable. Her expected duties required marriage, and she herself considered it as an escape. Later, she realizes that one satisfying others will never create happiness for themselves. So, this journey represents the probe of her unconscious.
      Kathleen is described in the story to be a “prosaic” (661) woman who’s normal expression was that of “controlled worry, but of assent” (662). She is someone who has always tried to be in control of her life. She maintains a routine and can professionally mask her worry and present a normal, stable character to the world. But, the reality of it is, that she’s been struggling with herself for a long time, worrying, upset and scared because of her continuous recollection of a repressed emotional event.
      The condition of the house can serve as a metaphor to represent the psyche of Drover; damaged. The battle scars left behind on the house, “bruise” in the wallpaper, “claw marks and the “cracks in the structure, left by the last bombing” (661) represent a traumatic experience that left behind a physical more obvious impairment to the home. But because of Drovers maintenance to keep calm and bright, it makes it difficult to understand her hurt and trauma. ” She slowly forced round her latchkey in an unwilling lock, then gave the door, which had warped, a push with her knee.”When she left the house 25 years ago, shutting those doors meant she was able to shut out any related memories associated with the past, but now, even with her doubts, she wants to be able to go back and relive what she forgot.
      In Freud’s text “Screen Memories, he explains that it’s obvious traumatic “… occasions of fear, shame, physical pain, etc., and on the other hand important events such as illnesses, deaths, fires…” (Freud, 117) Are expected reasons for people to remember these events because of the obvious trauma and effect it leaves on a person. Kathleen finds this memory to be so strong because of the emotional attachment she has to it that left her traumatized. She focuses on the event so much that she decided to come back to the house to find some common ground with herself, to move past and feel a sense of relief and self-forgiveness. In Freud’s text, when he is describing the yellow flowers that instantly brings back memories of his true love and childhood, he highlights that the hue of the yellow was not necessarily the same, but it still triggered his hippocampus. When Drover is finished with the house and ready to leave, she waits for her taxi. When she comes eye to eye with the driver, she begins to scream uncontrollably because she thinks the man is her fiance.It did not matter who the man was, but the figure of the man made her associate any man to her fiance. This shows how certain things don’t have to be precisely correlated for one to have a significant memory recollection. Also, we see in this event how Mrs. Kathleen Drover has released her emotions of worry and fear freely as she expresses it vocally. Freud’s interpretation of memories provides an interesting perspective and explanation for the way that Mrs. Drover responds to the memories she has associating with her past and present.

    • In Freud’s reading it was focused on being able to remember special memories that have meaning to you. In the story “Demon Lover” the women was able to remember memories. As well as she was able to remember her very specific traits and memories from entering a room etc. Now in Freud’s story the guy was able to remember very clearly from his past as well as his suroundings as in color and etc just as the women was able to do. The things we always cant remember are thought to be unconscious. And when a memory or a special event helps us recall this event it is considered to be our conscious mind. That promise she made may have been stuck in her unconscious mind only waiting to be recalled by the letter of the soldier. What they have both comparisons in is how vividly they both remember events from any small detail they recall they can visualize is the women and the man.

  • Reading Assignment: Sigmund Freud, “Screen Memories.” This may be a challenging reading, so take notes on what you think are the most important passages, and prepare questions about whatever you have dif […]

    • Freud’s way of viewing screen memories makes me think in a deeper way to my past memories and how to view them. The earliest memory i had of anything when i was younger and i could visually image it and only i will ever know how tramatic it was to me was when i blacked out for a few seconds at the park while on a swing and fell down to my back. I remember being in so much shock that i did not feel pain until i stood up and went home. To me i had fallen and been seriously injured due to how i felt however, to my dad it was because of how in shock i was and he told me it was not as bad as i thought it was in my head.

    • Our memories are essential to us; whether it’s information for an exam or to tell childhood stories, our brain sorts them out into long term and short term memories. Sometimes we have so many memories that when we go back to refer to them. According to “Screen Memory”, Freud explains that even if we are a hundred percent certain that memory took place, some details might not be accurate.
      One of my earliest memories from my childhood that I could think about is when I accidentally broke my two front teeth. I was about three years old when I was out with my family at the mall in a Macy’s shopping for summer clothes. My parents were waiting in line to purchase the cloths while my oldest brother and I wait for them. I distinctly remember running around with my purple slippers trying to chase my brother for a yellow envelope when I suddenly fell face first on the groundbreaking my two front teeth right out of my mouth. My hippocampus can still hear the screams that I let out at the mall with tears running down into my bloody toothless mouth. Freud claims that “… recollections grow scantier and less clear, there are gaps in them which must cover more than a year; and it is not I believe… “ (Freud, 118). He categorizes memory into three groups, memories that parents continuously explain, scenes that are described to someone where an unknown person is involved (like someone’s doctor or friends) and, memories the individual judges to be essential and, Unlike Freud who feels that he falls into the second category, I find myself to connect with the third one. I have seen that I categorize my memories not based on what my parents have told me, but what I feel has contributed to the relative importance in the shape of my current personality. I compare my present-day individual characteristics to verify memory and its occurrence based on the scenerio and conclude if I would participate in any activities or decisions that were supposedly taken place.

  • Reading Assignment: Read the Alexandra Kollontai short story “Sisters” carefully, taking notes about the moments that stand out to you.

    Writing Assignment: In a short response, bring the Kollontai story into […]

    • Feminism has been expressed for decades in multiple arrays of literature work. Mina Loy demonstrates her message loudly in “Feminist Manifesto,” as the text from her piece screams out the page visually, expressing her anger with the society that is trying to find amends and equality between men and women, “She is NOT!” (Loy, 153). But that women are superior to men. Virginia Woolf’s Chapter 5 of A Room of One’s Own, uses a softer tone to explain the progress in the movement as women in literature had begun to get credited for their work. Looking surpass the differences in the texts, both authors layout a common theme of questioning society, is this all that society wants, a couple of books in a bookshelf and equality? Wolf and Loy push for their audiences to demand more than what they think is enough because equality is not what should be the end goal of feminism; instead, a woman’s value should be higher of a man’s.
      Set in the 1920s, Alexandra Kollontai short story “Sisters” frames two women who are in two different situations, as they bond over their struggle. The speaker starts her story explains why she had recently left her husband, has nowhere to go, and fears she may have to resort to prostitution. After her and her daughter’s illness, she was laid off from her job. Her husband, an executive in a government trust company, prefers that she stay home as a housewife, “but her work was important to her.” When worse comes to worst, as their daughter dies; he brings a prostitute home. The speaker is horrified, humiliated, and angry at the prostitute, but she sees the desperation in the young 19-year-old woman’s eyes, and as they talk, realizes she is an educated young woman without money or a roof over her head, starving, anguished. The storyteller realizes that if she hadn’t been married, she’d be in a similar situation. She leaves her husband when she becomes homeless and without a job. The story illustrates a pressing issue that Alexandra Kollontai had to fight for relentlessly, that women’s rights are an essential part of the revolution.
      Kollontai’s piece shadow points highlighted in Mina Loy’s work. The prostitute in Kollontai’s story falls in Mina Loy’s description when she states, “you can have the choice between Parasitism, & Prostitution-or Negation…” (Loy, 154). Society categorizes women in these areas that mostly have a negative connotation, but Loy displays a third option implying that you do not necessarily have to fulfill the stereotypical expectations of a woman. Kollontai’s piece also concentrates on the idea that just because someone chooses to become a prostitute, it doesn’t imply that they are dirty or bad humans. Once the speaker looked past her initial thoughts of the young 19-year-old, she had opened up expressing how sorry she was, explaining “He promised to pay me well. It’s the same to me as long as they pay well”. She started to tell me her story” (Kollontai). Her desperation for money for food and shelter directed her path for the actions she took. Also, the speaker herself is apart of the two classes that Mina Loy introduces, “the mistress & the mother, every well- balanced and developed woman knows that is not true…” (Loy, 154). At first, the speaker felt as if she needed to stay in one of the categories and she did to fulfill her role as a mother to her daughter, even if she had to deal with her husband’s drinking problem. Leaving him made her anxious because she did not want to turn to prostitution or as Mina Loy referred to as the “mistress” class. But after understanding how inconsiderate he was by taking advantage of a woman, she hoped to be independent even if that meant to go “on the streets like the girl” (Kollontai).

  • Reading Assignment: Read both Mina Loy’s “Feminist Manifesto” and chapter 5 of Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own.

    Writing Assignment: In a short response, compare these two different feminist responses from […]

    • In Feminist Manifesto by by Mina Loy’s and in chapter 5 of Virginias’s Woolf’s A Room of one’s own are both writings in which shows two different perspectives and voices are portraying the topic of feminists voice. The first example where this is shown is in “Feminist Manifesto” where the tone is very agressive and harsh. Throughput the entire writing all her points she tries to make are shown to be in a bigger font to get what she’s trying to say out and clear. She tries to express how she does not approve how women are treated. However, in chapter 5 Virginia has more of a calmer tone and does not make many major points as Feminist Manifesto does. Although they don’t share the same tones, they wanted the same message to be understood on women.

    • From Mina Loy’s “Feminist Manifesto” and chapter 5 of Virginia Woolf’s A Room of One’s Own, both demonstrate the topic of feminism in their own unique perspectives. Mina Loy expresses her opinion loudly; woman should have a sense of stability by being independent. The stereotypical notion of following societies view of a woman to be “identified with her physical purity…” (Loy, 154). Loy rejects the idea that men are of equal to men stating, “be brave & deny at the outset that pathetic claptrap war cry, ‘woman is the equal of man.’ She is not” (Loy, 153). She continues to develop this idea by stating that men and women who abide by the rules that are correlated to women should not confirm their masculinity or femininity.Her bold message is clear when she introduces the idea of maternity explaining that every female has the option to make her own decision about her life and it should not be influenced or directed by anyone else. Virginia Woolf’s proposition is expressed in a more calm note as she does not concentrate on men and her rage towards them. Instead she explains the power of unity between woman that would bring change and revolution into society. Her reference to the fictitious author, Mary Carmichael’s book Life’s Adventures, authenticates her argument “that women, like men have other interests besides the perennial interests of domesticity” (Wolf, 130). Wolf, opposing Loy’s argument explains that both men and women equally look past just the permanent idea of a stereotypical family relationship. The different styles of harsh and soft tones in Loy’s and Wolf’s pieces both contribute to their different perspectives of how they view the universal idea of feminism.

  • As you continue to work on your essay, I would like you to write a short letter (300-500 words) describing your revision process, to include with your final paper. In this letter, you should:

    – restate your […]

    • In my essay I address the poem’s , “Not Waving But Drowning” use of the central metaphor of the false understanding that the speaker is waving while he is actually calling out for help as he is drowning. My thesis is a clear, narrow and is strong enough to be supported by the text itself. I explain how this metaphor contributes to the miscommunication between society and individuals. My thesis is an arguable one because one might disagree with the interpretation that I present of miscommunication and the meaning behind the waving.
      During the peer review, my partner had stated that I had presented my thesis clearly and used proper evidence. I also bought up some points that she had not even thought of when first reading the poem on her own, but she suggested that I focus on those points and extend them by providing supporting evidence to emphasize those points and strengthen my argument. I have looked through my paper and deleted sentences repeat my point that are just rewritten and added evidence to support the points I made about the poem that my partner found interesting. The writing process at first seemed challenging. I did not think that I would be able to write a 4-5 page analysis on one poem and had my fair share of writer’s block throughout the process of writing. But after rereading the poetry packets and choosing one that I was most confident with that related to me the most, my fingers typed away and I actually had to edit some things out because I found myself adding unnecessary details such as relating the poem to the world and using historical details. After peer review and the comments that you gave back on our essays I feel confident about my paper and that I have written it to the best of my ability.

  • Apologies, first, for the late posting. I have no excuse. Because it would be unfair to ask you to write a required, graded response at this point, I will only ask you to finish reading all the poems in the Poetry […]

  • Reading Assignment:

    Read the Poetry Packet 2. Read each poem multiple times, out loud and silently, and take notes in the margins of all that interests, confuses, or frustrates you.

    Writing […]

    • In the sonnet, “ I, Being born a Woman and Distressed”, Edna St. Vincent Millay writes in a very specific structure that contributes to the message behind the poem.The poem follows a petrarchan sonnet, with a rhyme scheme of ABBAABBA the first eight lines and CDCDCD the last six lines. The title of the poem plays a significant role to itself as it is incorporated and repeated emphasizing the ideas that are being communicated.
      Given the publication date in 1923, it gives the readers a hint that the poem might be addressing the treatment of women and the conservative ideas of sex and love in society at this time. Millay demonstrates the narrators confusion through the use of both high and normal diction She describes life as a “fume” that “cloud the mind”. This gives off a very strong imagery of the thoughts that the speaker might be having about their lover that is polluting their head. There are also words that contrast from each other including, “distressed”, “urged” and “possessed” which diverge from words such as “designed”, “mind”, and “reason”. She also continues on to say “I find this frenzy insufficient reason” (3). The alliteration of the ‘f’ sound in this line stands out because it highlights a specific tone when read alone, emphasizing how direct the speaker is trying to be as she is explaining her emotions and reluctance to see her lover again. The way in which the poem shifts between these two sides of the brain and thoughts from the mind helps to emphasize the internal emotions and thoughts of the speaker. This also helps the reader relate to the concept of head versus heart thinking. While reading this poem, I was able to relate to my personal experiences as a woman. Society has opened much more, accepting women into the face of the media and talking about love is completely normal. But as a Bengali- Muslim woman, I still feel stuck in the 1920’s where love and sex is a forbidden conversation to talk about.
      Millay’s use of diction and following a specific petrarchan sonnet structure allows readers to understand the message of “I, Being born a woman and Distress” to be left to the readers. The author writes to help the audience relate to their own experiences and thought that they might have on women and love to create a unique personalized meaning that might not have a concrete explanation, but one that is universal to any individual.

    • The poem i chose to read and analyze was “I, being born a woman and distressed” by Edna St. Vincent Millay. This poem gave a imagine of a woman’s thoughts about a male. Edna used much diction behind many of her stanzas. One of the stanzas in the poem, “of my stout blood against my staggering brain”, what i understood from this is she describes her blood as stout which can mean thick so her blood is thick as she goes through any obstacle in her way in perhaps society. In Richards essay i took from it to deeper analyze the poem by the sense of deeply hearing the poem in your head. This poem has two senses that i got from it. One being the “love or season” as she states as a literal season but then she changes this in the next stanza making it appear to be some other seasoning associated not with the weather.

  • Reading assignment

    I. A. Richards, “The Poetic Experience”

    Writing assignment

    Write a short response (250 words) to the Richards chapter by trying to apply his way of describing the “poetic experience” to […]

    • In the chapter, “The Poetic Experience”, Richards goes into the art of poetry that is developed by the writer and analyzed by the readers. “Poetry was he mental rattle that awakened the attention of intellect in the infancy of civil society…” (13). When someone establishes a poem, the writer presents their work usually with a distinct message. But a poem can have multiple interpretations from the readers based on their personal experiences that influence may influence their views or remind them of a familiar memory to connect to. “We may best make our analysis of the experience that arise through reading these lines, from the surface inwards, to speak metaphorically. The surface is the impression of the printed words on the retina. This sets up an agitation which we must follow as it goes deeper and deeper (17). Richards expresses the importance of looking at a poem beyond it’s words because that is just the surface that is visible to any naked eye. But as readers, it is crucial that you look into a poem with an open mind to be able to dig into the deeper meaning. This concept is visible in Hilda Doolittle’s poem “The Pool”. The one stanza poem leaves everybody guessing “what are you?” (1). It is agitating to not have the amount of information to fill in the blanks and come to a direct conclusion of the poem, but it does allow the audience the opportunity to open interpretations and create a personal message that can be created from one’s experiences or beliefs. Anyone can take the literal approach to say that the author wrote about someone catching something in the water. But having the ability to analyze a poem beyond what the retina sees to understand the deeper meaning of the message is what fulfills the purpose of a poem.

  • Reading Assignment:

    Read the entire Poetry Packet 1. You should read each poem several times, noting in the margins ideas or lines that interest you.

    Writing Assignment:

    These poems are each, in their own […]

    • The one stanza, five-lined, unrhymed 23-word poem, “The Pool” by H.D is a minimalist piece that is difficult to comprehend because of its vague description and unanswered questions. The obvious setting of the poem is taken place at a pool, maybe a tide pool given the fact that the speaker is carrying a net. In the poem, the speaker sees something in the pool, and questions, “Are you alive?” (1) They touch it and using simile to compare the reflex to one that “quiver like a sea-fish.” (1), they then cover the thing with a net. The poem concluded with the person wondering what the thing is. It is unclear who the person is, what the thing is and what it has to do with the individual. The details are straightforward, yet so involved with its hidden messages.
      The poem poses a couple of questions, more than it provides as indicated in the first and last line of the stanza. The million dollar question, “What are you?” (1) What is it that she is looking at? Is it themselves as they look back at her reflection through the water? The person might have been referring to themselves as “you” to explain the difficulty they are having to self-discovery. Or is it something physical that is being held in their hands that reminds them of something? The “you” might be referring to a literal object that may trigger their hippocampus to reflect on their past, present or future. The lack of detail, description, and history of the speaker leaves the reader to have a million interpretations of this simple poem.

  • Reading assignment:

    Terry Eagleton, “Introduction: What is Literature?” Please read this chapter carefully and take notes. It will be helpful to mark important passages, and to mark the places that inspire […]

    • Marianne Moore and Terry Eagleton direct their writing to express the definition of complex words that have been manipulated throughout history through authors and readers. Moore attempts to define poetry as something that is not a “high-sounding interpretation” (3) but something that is “useful” (3). Anybody can take a piece of text and unravel the meaning of it and find the authors purpose, but Moore emphasizes that poetry should be intended to be understood as a personalized message that the reader can appreciate.

      Terry Eagleton uses a similar connotation to attempt explaining literature. He concentrates on “interests” and “values” as a relationship in society and how one evaluates a situation. He states “value-judgments themselves have a close relation to social ideologies” (14). Social ideologies are a set of standards in a community that is considered acceptable and followed. Value Judgment is when an individual acts based on their, escaping the norms. Like Moore, Terry Eagleton attempts to explain that literature can be of value to a person if they can take the unbeaten path to understand the writing for themselves instead of following the general assumptions made about a piece of literature.

      Based on the two authors explanations of what poetry and literature mean, “usefulness” is a flexible word to explain literature because if we can put things into perspective and value the outcome from composition then inevitably it will be useful to us.

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