Frankie Romano

  • Has your writing changed over the course of the semester? If so, how?

    What do you think you’ve improved on the most?

    What do you think you still might need to improve on?

    What element of writing was most […]

    • I believe my writing had changed, however there is still many improvements I need to work on. This change came from, the constant writing of paper after paper. When I was in high school, I had rarely written papers which could explain for my many weaknesses in writing. However, the constant writing this semester had not only improved my writing, but gave my realization. I was able to see the common mistakes I would make, and the only way to know that is to write a lot. The most I had improved on in this class is my organizational skills. When I had written essays prior, I would have difficulty in deciding how to structure my paper as a whole. However, now I have definitely improved in this aspect of my writing. A weak point in my writing I still need to work on is clearly connecting evidence with my thesis. I believe I find good quotes, but I think my argument becomes weakened from lack of explaining It back to my thesis statement. Overall I had enjoyed class and found the writing quite interesting. Although, I was not to fond of the writing exercise. They were beneficial to my writing, but didn’t catch my interest. What I probably take away from this class, is that writing has such a important impact in history. I think the best quote to demonstrate it is , “the pen is mightier than the sword”.

  • What are the similarities and differences in tone, message, etc between Kramer’s speech and Queers Read This? What is the genre of this reading and how does that affect its tone and message?

    What intersections […]

  • Your reading response is a letter to your peer review partner, addressing the points they included in their cover letters. You should read your partner’s draft more than once, making marginal notes about a […]

  • Has your notion of “writing to move” changed over the semester? If so, how?

    What were your favorite readings and why?

    What’s the most interesting thing you learned from one of the readings?

    If you could […]

    • Actually, this semester really helps me improve my writing skill. when I was in high school, I don’t even know how to write a formal essay. I believe when I’ve learnt in this class would literally make me grow more in college as I can be a better writer. my favourite writing is Rodriguez’s “the hunger of memory”because I was touched by how he could face when he saw in college as a minority student and his really can motivate people to pursue education more and reflect the need of early childhood education for minority simultaneously. the most interesting thing I learned from these readings is as same as the topic of this class, writing to move. I believe writing can encourage people to achieve what they think they are disabled to do. most importantly, it declared the reason and importance of getting an to education to me. if I could replace one of the readings, I would like to replace “the women in 19th century because it is the one that isn’t closely related to social mobility.

    • I think the concept of Writing to Move didn’t change that much for me. Observing and analyzing the texts did provide different lenses on how this can be achieved. My writing did improve from this semester and I learned a lot of key ideas that will help me for future English classes and my life. I found all the readings fascinating and interesting but I believe that since this class is about Writing to move it should be open to analyzing different texts from many minorities, not just a select few. I found many texts interesting and insightful and changed the view I had on education and social mobility.

    • My notion “writing to move” has changed over the semester. As the semester has progressed, my writing has further developed. I have been able to put more of my voice into my writing and “move” my audience more. Furthermore, over the course of the semester, I have refined my analytical skills. All of the readings where engaging and interesting and i liked how they all had to do about education and social mobility of mainly African Americans. But I agree with Asnat in that we should read more texts about other minorities in order to expand our view of minority. My favorite readings of the semester were the Rodriguez and the Obama readings, that is why I wrote essay 2 and 3 on those readings. Overall, I enjoyed the class and looked forward to coming to class.

  • Just posting the motivating moves from Monday–I meant to have it up before your abstracts, sorry! But you can refer to this as you write your drafts.

    From Gordon Harvey’s Elements of the Academic E […]

  • Note the way this text was distributed. How does that affect the way you read or interpret the text? Who is the audience, both literally and more broadly? What is the effect of the second person? What is the […]

    • This pamphlet was given out at the Pride parade in 1990. Just reading the title and introduction provide that the author is very passionate and aggressive about their beliefs. The audience literally would be as the title suggests queer people and the people marching in the parade. But it’s implicit that the author wants straight people to know their feelings towards them. The language is very clear and simple for everyone to understand at times vulgar to demonstrate the tone which is aggressive, passionate and angry. The author goes on talking about AIDS disease which during the 1990’s was still recovering from a humongous breakout, they are displaying their anger that the media portrays queers as the starters of this disease. “Art is the last safe place for lesbians and gay men to thrive” they state as the only refuge from the world. I noticed that the point of view changes throughout the pamphlet that at one moment a man is speaking and at another a woman is. They bring up many arguments about desire to be equal or rather to decrease the amount of heterosexuality that should be appearing in “our world”
      I think much has changed since 1990, American society is more accepting of the LGBTQ community.

    • The text was distributed through sub-headings which each had different concepts of movement and thoughts of queers. This allows readers to have a clear understanding of what are the authors’ different ideas are. The text’s purpose is to show the common ideas that queers have and how they should be treated equally as people. The language used involves profanity, which i believe gives power to the idea of radical change, in the sense of allowing queers to have equal rights and be treated like human beings. For example, the author states “We are an army because we have to be. We are an army because we are so powerful (p.2)”, this shows how the author believes queers should work together and unite as a whole to demand the same rights as straight people. The authors also present how queers are too afraid to show their true-selves, as stated “You ignore me in public because i bring ‘too much’ attention to ‘my’ lesbianism (p.6)”. The queers are oppressed by the straight people’s morals and too afraid to show who they really are because of the discrimination they will face . The queers situation is also relatable to the blacks fighting for equal rights in the 60s. As the authors state “Being queer is not about right to privacy; it is about the freedom to be public, to be just who we are (p.2)”, the queers want to have freedom and be equal to straights this idea is relatable to the black people in the 60s who have fought for the end of segregation and for equality with white people.

    • in the beginning, I was confused the word Queer. when I understand what queer stands for, I know the intention of this writing is to encourage homosexual people to fight for the basic right which has been violated by who is considered straight people. the audience is gay and lesbian or even more broadly to the social activist who can appeal for social reformation. the language that writers used is very rude because many curse words were used to convey audience that writer’s tone is very aggressive and angry. I feel the angry tone when it is stated that ” And I want to scream ‘who the fuck am I? and I want to scream at New York hospital with its yellow plastic bags marked ‘ isolation linen’ ” ( anonymous, 4). This quote stands out to me because I can see the inequality that queers faced in society, especially in the hospital where “people lives matter” is put on first and emphasized. More miserable is that Queers were considered the cause and conductor of AIDS and that people can kill and assault Queers for any reasons. I see the argument that ” homosexual people should come to fight for basic right as Black people had proved that they can take action to achieve their goal when the writer said ” the people of color throughout the city recognized it and acted on it. The issues no long exist in present society because people are more accepting of homosexuality whereas people were extremely against in the past.

    • Since this leaflet was distributed during the NY Pride Parade in 1990, many of the LGBTQ+ community must have read the message it conveys. The message is basically to empower the LGBTQ+ community, to keep their heads up, to not give up on their rights as human beings. The message is also directed towards the straight people who do not really know what it’s like to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, transsexual, queer, asexual, pansexual, demisexual, and other non-cisgenders. The tone of the writers is irate, indignant because they’re not treated as normal human beings. They’re not accepted by the general public because they don’t conform to cisgender norms.Their use of this tone is effective because it sparks a sense of agreement within the LGBTQ+ community. They, too, experience the maltreatment. They, too, experience society’s unacceptance. In the text, they said, “I hate straight people who say, “I don’t see why you feel the need to wear those buttons and t-shirts. I don’t go around telling the whole world I’m straight” (5). This can be compared to the events of this day, in particular, the Black Lives Matter movement. Many people say, mostly people not of African-American descent, “why not say ALL LIVES MATTER?” because all lives matter, right? I mean, all lives do matter, but because of the continuous maltreatment and police brutality towards black people, Black lives matter most, at this moment. It’s the same as when the LGBTQ+ community wore those buttons and t-shirts which display their sexuality. It’s the same as when they fought and demanded equal treatment because it’s their moment. They’ve had enough of society’s maltreatment. Cisgenders do not experience the same harsh treatments as the members of the LGBTQ+ community do. The issues they raise are present today as they were in 1990 because even though the Supreme Court of the United States allowed gay marriage for all 50 states since 2015, each individual state still gets to find their leeway in order to prevent said marriage. The LGBTQ+ community, up to this day, still experience discrimination although not as brutal as before because society is more secular and accepting nowadays. The Catholic church is becoming more accepting and secular through the influence of Pope Francis. In Pope Francis’ flight from Armenia to Rome, he said, “I believe that the church not only must say it’s sorry … to this person that is gay that it has offended, but it must say it’s sorry to the poor, also, to mistreated women, to children forced to work… Who are we to judge them? The culture has changed — and thank God!” His speech made it clear to me that as time elapses, so does culture. Culture and society are hopefully becoming more accepting to everyone from this day onward. As a feminist, a pansexual, a person of color, an immigrant, and a Catholic, I’m hoping society will become more progressive towards its road to greater acceptance over time.

    • Almost instantly I saw the connection between Queers and African Americans. I don’t mean it in a negative aspect, but I mean to show the connection of their struggle for equality. The author of this text sounds very much like the most influential African American activist that we all know: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcom X. They were both extremely passionate about their cause and the author evidently sounds the same. The author is clearly tired and frustrated with how the LGBT community has been treated. They wrote this text to remind the members of the LGBT community that they matter and that they will continue fighting for equality. I believe the issue at hand still stands hand to hand with racism in the United States present day. I say this because although laws and history has changed for the better, there are still very present hate crimes against these groups (LGBT community and African American community). It’s simply not fair to them. They all deserve to be angry and upset and frustrated, the tones that are present in the text.
      I found that the first paragraph of the third page was very poetic. The author’s anger makes his very detailed and emotional writing seem so poetic to me–which I really liked. This shows the passion behind their voice–the passion behind their cause.

    • The way this text is divided into sections and with new subheadings makes me feel that this paper is a collection of writings written by queer people on their views towards this topic. It’s like a collection of journals that all refers to one request, which is asking for queers to be treated like normal human being and equally. The audience literally is for straight and queers. It is explicitly telling the straights how they feel and to the queers, the author encourages them to come out and support the community. Throughout the text, I can feel the authors’ aggressive and desperate tone through the use of curse words, exclamation marks, question marks, and quotes. To the straight people,the author is constantly conveying a message that being loving someone of the same sex or being queer in general is not a virus nor a sickness. It is not spread around like a disease, infecting the society. It is simply their choice of being who they are and be with someone they love. To the queers, the author is asking them not to hide anymore, to come out and be who they are. To support their community because they can only fight if they are together and united. Queers are considered as a minority group also because they are underrepresented in the society. One quote in the text that I find very strong is “men do it to women, whites do it to blacks, and everyone does it to queers” (Annoymous 10). This shows how even though women and blacks are minority groups also, but compared to queers, they are treated more equally than queers. Women makes up half of a population, blacks a major population too, but queers are small because a lot of them are still afraid to come out. It is very obvious that this issue is still present today because this group of minorities still fighting for the same rights nowadays. It is pathetic how the issue still hasn’t resolved all these years and they(queers) are still facing discrimination. This shows how the world still haven’t open up its mind to accept the fact not everyone has to be the same, and that it is okay to be different.

  • Please bring Letter from Birmingham Jail with you on Monday!

    Note: Read the intro, then read from page 66 up to “Our First Weapons” on 72, and for the second excerpt, read from 391 to the break on 394.

    How […]

    • Bobby Seale differs from Dr. King in that his tone is more aggressive and frank. It’s not violently aggressive, but it is just a tad bit more verbally aggressive, per se, in comparison to MLK. He uses little to no flowery metaphors or biblical/religious allusions as compared to King. His work is more of a political platform, an agenda for revolution, an immediate call to action to overthrow white supremacy. Dr. King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail” is more of a personal sentiment, and has more literary devices alluded to it, although it’s similar to Seale’s in that it’s also an immediate call to action. Both Seale and Dr. King demand equality,civil rights, and human rights for the minority groups, most especially the African-American community. From the reading, I noticed that the Black Panther Party has a very strict set of rules, which makes it clear to the masses that they are very serious about their agenda. They do not want to take their revolutionary processes for granted as they want each and every member to be sober, conscious, and utterly devoted to the platform.

    • Bobby Seale, in his Seize the Time, demonstrates who the Black Panthers are and what does they stand for. Almost instantly did I make the connection of theirs with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcom X. The Black Panthers actually share similarities between these two polar opposites. Like the two African American figures, they were very demanding of what they want for there people, but unlike Dr. King, they seemed to be aggressive with their demands. Like Malcom X, they believed in using self-defense (68). I believe the Panthers used these excerpts as a different way of fighting for their cause. I’ve always believed that if you want to get a message across, it needs to be done on a different number of platforms. Based on the reading, the reading is meant for anyone willing to learn about African American activism, especially African Americans.

  • What is the purpose and who is the audience (literal and non-literal, perhaps?) of this letter?

    How does this letter compare with what you know of Dr. King?

    What is his tone? What is his argument?

    What […]

  • Note: Read the dedication and then start at the top of 360.

    What impression do you get from the dedication page?

    What connections can you draw between Greer and Friedan? Greer and other readings from the […]

  • Sorry this is up so late, folks. You can have until the end of the day tomorrow to post your response!

    * Note: Start at “For the women I interviewed…”

    What does Friedan argue in this reading? Who is her […]

    • Betty Friedan in her work the Feminine Mystique focuses on the “unspoken problem” that housewives are unhappy and Friedan is facing the reasons why that is the case. Because these women were housewives and didn’t have other jobs they didn’t feel self-accomplished. Once they had a job and an ambition of their own they felt an enormous weight off their shoulders. Friedan wrote this book I think for everyone to read and understand how women don’t feel self-fullied through being a house-wife. Friedan believes that ” …and only education, has saved, and can continue to save, American women from the greater dangers of the feminine mystique.” Friedan describes women’s experiences as intersectional implicitly since gender roles and education played a huge role during the 1950’s-1960’s. She believes that if women take their education seriously and must take a job and excel at it to help and motivate others. That woman can raise socially and be finally treated as equals. Friedan ends off the chapter by promoting education and meaningful work to avoid being stuck in the feminine mystique.

    • Betty Friedan, in The Feminine Mystique, opens up about the serious, life altering problem women faced in the early to mid 1900s. Many women would be reluctant to speak about the emptiness in their lives–a housewife role that was expected of them to love and fulfill, but that simply was not the case. The feminine mystique that is mentioned in the reading is the opposite of what I thought it would be when I first heard the term. I thought the feminine mystique was something good that empowered women, but I was bluntly wrong. The feminine mystique is something that doesn’t let women become empowered–which can be gained through education. Knowledge is power, and the feminine mystique “…has made higher education for women seem suspect, unnecessary and even dangerous” (487). But women did not feel happy in their housewife role–they seemed to all feel as if they regretted not making a career of their passion; they regretted not doing something with their education. Many through their education away just to being “a good housewife”. I believe this reading can be understood by everyone, which is who the audience is, but mainly for women. I say this because the Friedan made it obvious and even stated how important education is, especially for women.

      • I agree with you because usually one would expect women to speak about empowering men or being proud of what they do. Instead, Friedan speaks about the conflicting role of a housewife and how many women felt that they had not only given much attention towards their education, but also hadn’t used that education wisely in terms of their future life. The audience would most likely be men who doubt the power of a housewife or women who have had an education. The social mobility in this would be the rise of women as they gain more education because although many have not been happy as housewives, they found more comfort in learning. It was stated “One woman I interviewed who had never gone to college, decided, after psychotherapy, to take two courses a year at a nearby university which, fortunately had an evening school” (494). In this statement this woman had never received an education, but later as she took two courses, she was able to teach in a high school. This shows that women are capable of learning but it is because of lack of opportunities and the “feminine mystique”itself which makes women feel defenseless.

    • In Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan is discussing the “problem that has no name” (486) of the lives of women and housewives and the root of their unhappiness. This problem prevents american women from “growing to their full human potential” (Freidan 495). She argues women of this time have a desire to further their education and work and want to “fulfill an ambition of their own” (Freidan 486) and that a higher education can help them. She thought “that education, and only education, has saved, and can continue to save, American women from the greater dangers of the feminine mystique” (Freidan 487). Her audience is anyone who underestimates and does not appreciate the hard work mothers and wives do on a daily basis. Furthermore, her audience is also anyone who believes that women belong in the kitchen and should not receive higher education. One way this differs from the previous readings I that this shows a woman’s point of view rather than a man’s point of view in both Ford and Carnegie’s writing. Freidan implicitly describes the intersectionality of gender and education. She argues that education is directly linked with social mobility. The more education receive the more job opportunities that have and the more money they can make to support their family and provide a better life. Furthermore, higher eduction will earn them more respect and prestige.

    • In the Feminine Mystique, Friedan argues and talks about “the problem that has no name” which is women unhappiness at home. I feel that her audience is more towards women, rather than men because she tries to convince and make women admit that they also felt the same unhappiness and emptiness while staying at home. This reading is similar with the past readings we’ve read because it also demonstrates the importance of education and mobility, but this reading focuses more on the importance of education gender-wise instead of race or class wise like the other readings. Unlike the past readings which most focuses on the importance of education for men of different races and class, this reading focus only on the importance of education to women. Friedan suggests that because of their gender, women are “kept from growing to their full human capacities” (495). I agree with her when she makes a point on how educated housewives are not happy at home and their education make them frustrated in the role of housewives(488), I think that women should be frustrated because it is a waste for an educated women to stay home when she could’ve use her knowledge somewhere else where its useful and make contributions to the society instead of staying home. Friedan wants housewives to admit the fact that they don’t want to be trapped in the house anymore, that they should step out of the house trap and go out there to find their identity.

    • Friedan argues in her book Feminine Mystique, that woman need to have awareness to reach their full capacity. The audience would probably be housewives, because her objective is to spread awareness of this truth, and many housewives are unaware of that. A major points she makes is that women get an education in high school and even continue it with college. However, they earn a degree or almost finish, but doing nothing with it. They will become a housewife, and all their schooling become irrelevant to their occupation as a housewife. Friedan is saying the issue is not about women getting an education, its about using the education they earned and actually applying it in a career. She actual mentions that many women had a big regret of not using their college education to actual use(Friedan 490). I think that Friedan would agree that education and social mobility have a strong relationship, but the education needs to be put to use.

  • Picking up the thread of difficulty/confusion with blogs, I wanted to think about Mark Sample (samplereality) for a minute. My struggle with the blogs is that I’m not sure students see any connection between the work on the blogs to the work of formal assignments, and that’s definitely on me for not knowing how to articulate the connection or…[Read more]

  • What is the genre and purpose of these chapters?

    Who is his audience?

    What is his argument overall? Or what are his arguments?

    How is Carnegie similar to and different from Ford?

    How might we connect […]

    • The autobiography of Andrew Carnegie is a personal memoir to recall his early life. These chapters show how Carnegie had to go work at many different jobs at a young age in order to help support his family. But like in our previous reading of Washington, he craved to be educated. His audience isn’t specifically directed at anyone, he’s just explaining his path of success from the beginning of his life. How from working in a factory he became a respected messenger boy.It’s interesting to see how much do Washington and Carnegie share a dislike towards hard labor and the environment it is done in. ” From the dark cellar running a steam-engine at two dollars a week, begrimed with coal dirt…I was lifted into paradise (37).” In Chapter 4, Carnegie discusses the class his family was in, they were poor and had to put anyone that was able to work in order to make ends meet. And how proud his parents were of Carnegie when he brought more money home. The main intersectionality with Carnegie is education and class. I believe that Carnegie is trying to prove that young person if presented with a job should be quick to take it because it might help them rise in class. “I think that answer might well be pondered by young men. It is a great mistake not to seize the opportunity (37). “

    • The genre of Andrew Carnegie’s writing is an autobiography as he writes about his early life. The purpose of these chapters is to show how Carnegie worked since an early age and obtained better-paying jobs through his accomplishments and connections. For example, Carnegie states, “My uncle mentioned my name, and said he would see whether I would take the position” (35). Carnegie is explaining how through his uncle he found a job as a messenger for Mr. Brooks, and as a messenger, he received connections with leading men in the city Pittsburgh. As being a successful messenger, Mr. Glass paid Carnegie 2.25 dollars more than his regular monthly wage, a great factor in Carnegie’s motivation to get better-paying jobs. Carnegie’s argument overall is, with hard work anything is possible. This relates to Cole and Omari’s category of class when Carnegie received better-paying jobs he was able to support his family more, which in turn moved them up in social class through wealth.

    • The genre of Andrew Carnegies Autobiography is a memoir about Carnegie’s early life. His purpose is to demonstrate the struggles he faced worked multiple odd jobs to support his family and slowly worked up the ladder. His audience is everyone. There is no explicitly shown audience. His audience is anyone who is interested in his life’s journey. Like the past readings, Carnegie had an intense desire to learn and did not come from a wealthy family. Furthermore, Carnegie and Washington are similar in that they both disliked the hard labor they were doing. Washington hated working in the coal mines while Carnegie hated working in “the dark cellar running a steam-engine at two dollars a week, begrimed in dirt” (37). Carnegie discusses the intersectionality of class and education. He believed that the more jobs he took where he would learn more skills, the further he would move up in social class. Carnegie believed that people should take every opportunity put in front of them, “I think that answer might well be pondered by young men. It is a great mistake not to seize the opportunity” (Carnegie 37). And he proved it to be true. The more skills he learned the better jobs he got and the higher his salary was. He even made more than others who had the same position as him, “Mr. Glass took me behind the counter and said that I was worth more than the other boys, and he had resolved to pay me thirteen and half dollars” (Carnegie 53).

    • The genre of the Andrew Carnegie’s text is an autobiography and I don’t think there is a targeted group of audience. The purpose of this text was to show how although Carnegie came from a poor working class, he was able to work his way through and reach success, similar to every other past readings we read. There is no specific argument but the purpose was shown through when Carnegie discussed because he didn’t have much knowledge, he worked and tried out different jobs simply because he wanted to support the family in ways that he can. He also wish to step out of the family and go outside to try something new. His life started to change when he became a telegraph messenger in Pittsburg. Being a telegraph messenger signals a new start for him and “lifted him into paradise and heaven” because it opened him to new people, new experiences and friendships. The overall idea of this text is to show how even though he started from the bottom as a poor knowledge-less man, he worked hard and was able to support his family and make them proud.

  • Genre, purpose, audience?

    How does he characterize charity?

    What argument does he make overall?

    What role does class play in this chapter? Gender? What role does education play?

    How would you describe […]

    • Ford’s My Life and Work, is a memoir as he speaks about his personal experiences and his audience is for everyone since he speaks about how to make everything better in society. Ford exposes the flaws of many things in society and explains how to run things efficiently which is done through his creations/institiutions. The argument he overall makes is how people are restricted from what they want to do and are usually taught the wrong way which degrades humans as a whole. For example, Ford states that people in jail shouldn’t just be punished and kept in a cell for the rest of their lives but instead should be productive and should be thinking about life financially after they get out of jail. Moreover, education is a large factor in Ford’s writing because he explains how trade school should be effectively run, where boys are taught to be productive and are prepared to do everything they have learned from trade school into their professions. Ford also writes about his hospital, which is shown as a hospital that is efficient and fits every person’s needs, as he states “If a case requires more attention than the nurses assigned to the wing can give, then another nurse is put on without an additional expense”. This shows how in Ford’s hospital everyone is treated equally no matter the type of illness, the right amount of attention is given to each patient, which shows the efficiency of his hospital. Ford as a narrator is informative and provides clear examples to his argument through his personal ideas and accounts.

    • The genre of Henry Ford’s My and life work is a memoir whose primary purpose is to illustrate the drawbacks of charity and “social work” (Ford 208). Ford’s audience is people in need of charity/social work and people who provide charity/social work. Ford characterizes charity as “systemized, organized, commercialized, and professionalized, the heart of it is extinguished, and it becomes a cold and clammy thing” (207). For example, he discusses how “there are more orphan children being cared for in private homes of people who love them than institutions” and “there are more old people being sheltered by friends than you can find in the old people’s homes” (Ford 207). He states that “professional charity is not only cold but it hurts more than it helps. It degrades the recipients and drugs their self respect” (Ford 207). Ford argues that charity does not help in the long run, “we must have self-reliance” (Ford 207). A Chinese proverb states “You give a poor man a fish and you feed him for a day. You teach him to fish and you give him an occupation that will feed him for a lifetime.” Ford discusses how if a young adult is untrained, he is adding to the “already great scarcity of competent labour” (Ford 207). This is why Ford created the Henry Ford Trade school in 1916, in order to train the young people so that they can be self-reliant. Fords tone is initially critical of the system but later is more hopeful and proud of how he was able to make a difference.

  • How do you see the concept of intersectionality in this reading?

    What is the genre (or does it cross genre boundaries, like Lorde’s “biomythography”?) and what is the purpose of this reading?

    How is this […]

    • In Anzaldúa’s Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, there are several intersectionalities: racism (specifically, linguistic racism), sexism, same-race discrimination, and ableism. As for (linguistic) racism, Anzaldúa talks about her experience as a little girl getting reprimanded by an Anglo teacher because she was speaking Spanish. “If you want to be American, speak ‘American.’ If you don’t like it, go back to Mexico where you belong.” (Anzaldúa p. 53) Growing up, her experience as a child made her question about her identity as a Chicana living within the US border, or Anglo border as she sometimes referred to it. She was forced to assimilate within the American society by having to take speech classes in english because of her Mexican “accent.” She was forced to assimilate in order to forget about her identity as a Mexican woman. As for sexism, Anzaldúa, upon growing up in a patriarchal Mexican culture and society, cried for equality. She mentioned about the time she first heard the word “nosotras” (p.54) from two women, a Puerto Rican and a Cuban, and she was very surprised because in her culture, and as a Chicana, they only used “nosotros”, the masculine form of “we.” “We are robbed of our female being by the masculine plural. Language is a male discourse.” (Anzaldúa p. 54) This quotation shows that even her very own language denoted discrimination towards her very being: a woman. Same-race discrimination also played a significant role in chapter 5, “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” She mentioned the accusations of many other Latinos towards the Chicano Spanish which she speaks, the accusations of her fellow Chicanos whenever she spoke standard Spanish, and the accusations of both Chicanos and Latinos whenever she spoke English. She did not have a safe haven everywhere she went and whatever language she spoke. Ableism also came to play as part of the intersectionalities found in Anzaldúa’s writing. She spoke about her anxiety in chapter 6. It wasn’t really a direct ableistic discrimination by another, but instead it was a conflict within her own self. She mentioned that “writing produces anxiety.” (p.72) She also mentioned, “Daily, I take my throat in my hands and squeeze until cries pour out, my larynx and soul sore from the constant struggle.” (p.72) The latter imagery signifies the struggles she faced while coping up with the anxiety and pressure writing gave her. As a woman growing up in the middle of the 20th century, being a lesbian was also seen as a disability. It was less accepted at the time, and especially as a chicana, she was most probably less accepted in society as compared to a white lesbian woman. “Being a writer feels very much like being a Chicana, or being queer—a lot of squirming, coming up against all sorts of walls.” (Anzaldúa p. 72) Internal ableism was a struggle for Anzaldúa, but instead of it being a negative side effect, it made her embrace herself even more.

    • In Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, by Gloria Anzaldúa, there are multiple intersectionalities, specifically sexism and racism, similar to Audre Lorde’s, “Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.” The genre of Anzaldúa piece is an autobiography and its purpose is to describe her experience growing up as a Mexican American girl and being the target of racism and sexism. For example, in chapter 5 she discusses how she was basically punished for speaking Spanish in school, “I remember being caught speaking Spanish at recess—that was good for three licks on the knuckles with a sharp ruler” (Anzaldúa 53). And then her mother would get upset when she spoke english with a Spanish accent. Even once she was in college she was forced to take two speech classes to help eradicate her Spanish accent. Similarly, she goes to explain how Spanish language had a way of putting women down, saying that it has many derogatory phrases for women who stand up for themselves. Anzaldúa says that a lot of chicanos identify the language they speak with their home, as well as their identity. “I am my language” (Anzaldúa 53). She weaves together standard English, slang english, standard Spanish, standard Mexican Spanish, Nahuatl and a few other languages together to form her version of spanglish. She considers this jumble of languages her home, her comfort.

    • Anzaldua writes a memoir, that is crossed with a historical book. Anzaldua discusses her own experiences, but also shows a Latino background of history. I think this was very smart to do, because it shows her own struggles, but backs it up with history to show it was experienced by others as well. Anzaldua had also written her memoir in English, Spanish, and Nahuatl. She does this on purpose to express the main point she is making, that a language barrier causes someone to not completely understand what she is saying. She mentions that although that there are many Latinos, they are so many different dialects that there becomes a language barrier. She even gives a list of 7 different Spanish dialects spoken. The different dialects also causes a tension between Latinos, In that they think less of eachother. Anzaldua says, ” If a person, Chicama or Latina, has a low estimation of my native tongue, she also has a low estimation of me”(58). She is saying that if someone thinks of poorly of the language she speaks, she thinks poorly of her. This also shows language giving a sense of identity. The intersectionality within the memoir is nationality and language.

  • What is the genre and what might be the purpose of this text?

    How does this reading differ from others in this unit?

    How does intersectionality factor into this text? What kinds of commentary does Lorde make […]

    • This reading is based on a gay couple Lorde and her mate Muriel, who live in Manhattan together in 1955, as Lorde is a black woman and Muriel is a white woman. Intersectionality is greatly seen throughout the text such as, discrimination towards gender and race. For example, Lorde states, “When Muriel and I recieved stares and titters on the streets of the West village, or in the Lower East side market it was a toss-up to whether it was because we were a Black woman and a white woman together, or because we were gay” (p203). This shows how the discrimination of both Lorde being black and them two being a couple is faced by them through society. As they walk down the street they feel this way of discrimination towards them because of the intersectionality society places on them, especially since it is more of a racial time period. Another example is “One of these old ladie, who ran the cleaners across the street tried to give Muriel a used woolen skirt one day, “try it on, make you look nice, show you legs little bit ” (p204). Racism is shown because the old lady only offered Muriel this offer. The old woman also wants Muriel to wear the skirt so that she can look more lady like which is not of Lorde and Muriel’s values. Lorde throughout the story faces more discrimination since she is a black woman which especially leaves her disadvantaged in the 50s.

    • The genre of this text is an autobiography, and the purpose of this text, I think is to bring light to the issues of homosexuality and racism. This reading differs from others in this unit because other readings are mostly based on racism and the differences between African Americans and White Americans, but this reading not only presented similar issue but also shows another issue that are not often talked about by everyone. Throughout the text, there is an obvious intersectionality between gender, racism, and sexual orientation. Lorde seems like she wants to show how she, as an African American lesbian can get along well with her girlfriend, Muriel who is white. She repetitively wants to convince herself that because she and her girlfriend does not live in the “straight and normal” world, they do not have to worry about problems such as racism. But the truth is, she does realize that there is a difference between her and Muriel. This is shown when the old lady who gave Muriel a skirt so she could look better, when she didn’t even bother to give Lorde anything throughout years (204). This examples shows how even in a homosexual world, racism still exist. And Lorde is also aware of this issue herself, because she felt more comfortable and at ease when she’s at parties thrown by Black lesbians, and felt the parties thrown by Joan and Nicky who were white, made her uncomfortable (217-218).

    • I believe this reading might be an autobiography because of how Lorde is reflecting on her experiences with her lover, Muriel. Not many issue were brought to light in the very beginning of their relationship, but as the reading progresses, we see problems from the outside world that slowly creep into the relationship. A big piece of the equation that is revealed to us is that Lorde and Muriel are, intact, in a homosexual and interracial relationship. Being that this isn’t present day, this is something that is frown upon. As Lanka mentioned in his blog post, Lorde mentioned, “When Muriel and I received stares and titters on the streets of the West Village, or in the Lower East Side market it was a toss-up to whether it was because we were a Black woman and a White woman together, or because we were gay” (203). That is the intersectionality that is present in the reading, unlike the previous readings. The intersectionality present doesn’t have to do so much with Lorde’s financial standpoint (although discrimination most likely played a part in her not being able to find a job). The intersectionality is mainly found in the sexuality and race that is present in the reading. This can all play a negative role in Lorde’s possible quest for upward mobility simply because everyone discrimanates, especially in the mid-1900s.

  • What is the main argument of the text? Or what are the main arguments? Where did you find that argument articulated the most clearly?

    How do you see intersectionality at work? Where? Intersections of what […]

    • I agree with Giselle in which she says that the main argument of the text is about the racial problems/tensions that’s always been apart of history. Race has always been in issue in history–from as early as early as the notable slave eras to present day. These are ideas that are hinted from early on in the text, ones that are very easy to catch onto. Appiah quickly sets the stage for what he’s speaking about: the intersectionality of “Race, nation, and literatue…” and continues by saying “…these terms are bound together in the recent intellectual history of the West…” (48). Each of the terms he uses all reflect back to it’s connection with ‘nation’, as he makes the race and nation connection on page 48, and the other connection on page 50. Right off the bat we can see the connection of this text and Cole & Omari just from intersectionality. Race and class was always an issue. On page 52, Appiah states the doubts people had on African Americans and their ability to contribute to literature. He states, “European and Americans of European descent have consistently denied that black people were capable of contributing to ‘the arts and letters.’ He continues by saying “…influential figures expressed their doubts about the ‘capacity of a Negro’ to produce literature” (52). It seems as if only certain races and classes were “smart enough” to contribute to literature and further education. If you weren’t of high class/race, you weren’t credible enough to be heard. I believe this text is intended for and could help anyone gain a better understanding of intersectionality.

    • the main argument is that racial problems always had been connected with and affected education and literature. In Appaih, the conflict and tension between cultures were shown to readers when reading this essay. especially it mention how Black was treated with less respect throughout the history of America. on page 53, ” a fact that is hardly surprising in a country and then treated legally as second -class citizens in many places until 1960s. being citizen but seen as second-class would be an example of intersectionality between White and Black. Appiah seemed to agree with the authors of previous readings we’ve read. also he mention about Anglo-Saxon society to show how literature has a power control the culture of a nation. it led to a fact that student in American University must study the literature of Saxon and no one cares about the literature of Black. somewhere in the this mention that Black literature are not supposed to be read and published. is the literature of Black overwhelmed by others? it emphasize the important role of education. ” In response to this long line of antiblack invective,…to establish the capacity of the Negro by writing and publishing first poetry”(52-53) Many Black student are encouraged to study because people think few Black poets can publish valuable poetry. this is an example showing us how education is related to upward mobility. the audience of this essay would be all people in United States. its purpose is to draw attention to the hidden social issue encounter by Black community, emphasizing the importance of Black literature and through these examples to enhance equality and to reduce the influence left by slavery.

  • While I haven’t expressed this idea of translingual practices explicitly in my class the way you have, mostly because it isn’t something I’ve had to confront in my own life (though I do feel, and have been somewhat unconsciously trying to convey, that conventions are just conventions, and I’m teaching them because they’re what’s expected in…[Read more]

  • Do you think Obama makes any assumptions about his audience and their views on education, race, and/or class? Who is that audience? What might those assumptions be? Does he seem to take a final, clear stance on […]

    • Dreams of my father was written as a memoir and I think Obama’s intended audience was everyone ; regardless of race, gender, or class. He assumes that they may have some assumptions that African American youth would not go to college and would stay in their class without raising. Obama himself would smoke pot and had friends who would get arrested for drug possession. His mother would often fear that he wouldn’t amount to anything and be uneducated like his grandfather. But he goes to college and receives an education. Throughout the chapter, he seems to get overlapping perspective about education and it’s intersectionality with race and class. There was one quote ” The real price of admission..leaving your race at the door” reminded me of Rodriguez and his constant struggle of achieving a higher education while losing his sense of belonging in his community. Towards the end of the chapter, you could see Obama’s realization that he was afraid that he didn’t belong. He realized that if he tried to be someone he isn’t everyone regardless of race would judge him for it. He realized that his fear of not belonging was the reason he didn’t speak about what he believed in and once he figured that out Obama was determined to make a speech again.

    • In “Dreams from My father,” Obama’s intended audience is people of every class, gender, and race. Obama assumes that his audience believes that colored youth will never rise in their class. They will not pursue eduction and turn out exactly like the earlier generations. “‘Is that what you’re worried about? … That I’ll end up like Gramps?’” (Obama 95). Obama’s own mother feared that type of future for her son. As a teenager, Obama himself would smoke pot and didn’t care much about his grades. He even had friends who got arrested for drug possession friends who died in drunk driving accidents. I think that there were multiple overlapping perspectives regarding Obama’s stance on education and its relationship to race and class. “You’re not going to college to get educated. You’re going to get there to get trained… They’ll train you to forget what it is you already know” (97). Frank, a friend of Obama, believed that the price of getting into college was loosing who you really are, you had to leave “your race at the door” and leave “your people at the behind” (97 Obama). This can be connected to Rodriguez’s Hunger to Memory. Rodriguez’s desire to achieve a higher education and upward mobility resulted in him loosing touch with his culture and hispanic heritage. One example of this would be Joyce. She is black but describes herself as “multiracial” (Obama 99) due to her father’s Italian roots.

    • in his writing, Obama assumes that, in society, Black youth are considered to be not educated and sometimes arrested for drug taking and possession. His audience might be everyone in society regardless of race who has a wrong realization of Black. He wants to tell the audience that education is very important for social mobility because when he was young, his mom wanted him to go to college for higher education for upward mobility. But Obama was told that the price of admission is leaving his race at the door, which means, education might make him misunderstand the identity of Black and move apart from Black community due to the knowledge he gains from college. This is similar to Rodriguez’s writing. Because as being a minority or Black, he has to choose to either become an educated Black who is not fully admitted in White community or to stay in his own community where upward mobility doesn’t exist. In his writing, Obama implicitly shows a conflict between education and culture like Rodriguez does. And when thinking it deeper, readers may find that this is the disadvantage of Black caused by a key term -intersectionality.

    • I agree with my peers that Obama’s intended audience is everyone because it is clear through his speech when he says, ” I say, there’s a struggle going on. It’s happening an ocean away. But it’s a struggle that touches each and everyone one of us” (p106). The struggle that Obama explains in his speech is the struggle for equality amongst everyone, that there is a struggle of choosing sides of being black or white, especially since he is of both ethnicities. An example showing the spark of Obama’s speech is shown when he asks Joyce if she is going to the Black Students’ Association and she responds by saying that she is not black and that she is multiracial, and that Black people as a whole are pressuring her to choose a side. This shows how Joyce is pressured to be either black or a different race and that she can’t be multiracial, which shows that there is no equality amongst all races. Obama offers overlapping perspectives on education and its relationship to race, because he only talks about it in the beginning of the memoir. This is shown when Frank states, ” People who are old enough to know better, who fought all those years for your right to go to college, they’re just so happy to see you there they won’t tell you the truth … Leaving your race at the door, leaving your people behind”. What this means is that the Black people from generations before wanted their children to be educated so that they can move up in social class and that not entering higher education will leave you as a disadvantaged Black person. This relates to what Cole and Omari say because they explain how the Black race is disadvantaged and in order to move away from that the Black people must become more educated, but this makes them move away from Black culture and become more assimilated to white culture, which connects to Obama’s quote when he says leaving your race at the door, leaving your people behind.

    • I think the audience of Obama’s writing are African Americans who blindly believed that education can leads one to a higher social class. In the first part of the text, it seems like Obama did not see a future ahead of himself. His mother would constantly ask him about education and college and what he wanted to do after that and he always had no response to that. He seemed lost because he didn’t know if education is really helpful in what his mother and others believed that it can do and lead to. He wanted to tell his mother that her faith was misplaced, education and good intention in the world could help plug up the holes in the universe or give you the power to change its blind, mindless course (Obama 96). This shows how Obama felt that even if African Americans becomes educated, the white Americans will still view them the same way as before, having education does not change their identity or class. However, Frank holds an opposing stance. Frank basically believes that African Americans enter college to learn and to train themselves to become “more white”, to assimilate with the white culture. In the first part of the text, Obama gave me a sense that he didn’t care about all that education and race issues. He had no idea what he wanted to get out of college and what he wanted to do in the future. He didn’t understand why Joyce is strongly against the black label used on her, and why Regina was so mad at him after the speech. He simply didn’t want to get involved with black rights movements and he just went to college and get an education because his mother said so. This reminds me of Rodriguez because it seems to me Rodriguez felt the same way with Mexican-Americans. Rodriguez didn’t want to admit that he was a Mexican-American and a minority. To me, it seems like both Obama and Rodriguez wants to step out of their race circle and not get involved.

    • In “Dreams from my father” Obama used a memoir genre. He does this, to focus on a certain audience. Although, his story applies to all I think his audience is young adult blacks. Especially in this chapter as a young adult he discusses the struggle he endured. The questioning of his race and purpose causes him to drink and do drugs. The best way to talk to certain audience is in they’re perspective. On page 97 Obama friend Frank had mentioned,” Leaving your race at the door”. This phrase was very powerful when reading it, in that he is referring to when Obama will go to college, college will oppress the truth about race. College intentions are to , in some way brainwash people to believe in their ways. Another part of the chapter that I thought I was important was Obama friend Joyce was multiracial. Although, that she was black she didn’t identify herself as black. She had mentioned all the other nationality she was, and I think this shows that she in maybe some way she didn’t have that black pride. Obama also mentions that only black people are concerned with race, and white people don’t have a problem with it. White people are thought of as individual, and they are different as black people are a group. The racial prejudice of thinking a black male will steal a woman’s purse, or black people all speak a slang in language. It causes them to have to be concerned with race.

    • In Obama’s “Dreams of My Father” there are many connections of race and social mobility, which we’ve seen before in other texts. Obama is dealing with very common social issues, but in this case, specifically race. Not only is race a barrier for African Americans in general, it is a barrier within Obama. It is evident throughout the text that he has problems accepting his racial identity and those certain stereotypes that come along with it. Instead, Obama would slack off in school and turn to smoking marijuana to escape his reality. On page 93, Obama states “…I got high for the opposite effect, something that could push questions of who I was out of my mind…” I believed Obama wasn’t truly in touch with his cultural/racial identity, just like Richard Rodriguez. They came to barriers that made them questions who they were, and through that stunted their rise in social mobility. These readings are not intended for any specific audience as they reflect on class, race, and mobility–something absolutely everyone connects with.

    • For Obama’s story “Dreams from My Father”, I think his intended audience was majority intended for people of African decent but was meant for everyone due to the fact of who would be the most interested in his work on this topic. He makes the assumption that they will see young African Americans in a lower rank as the rest of society. The story itself has many points of view of the stance on education and its relationship to race and rank but the most defining one was when Obama talked to this person who explained to him what college truly does to someone. (97)
      This story can relate to past reading from the fact that they all keep the similar topic of the relation between education and how people stay together through having a similar race backgrounds. Obama’s story can relate back to Cole and Omari’s essay from the way that it talks about how people view and rank young black folks. In terms of social mobility these two talk about how racism holds back people from pursuing a better education, but at the same time in Obama’s story, the mom tells him, don’t be like the others on a downward slope or a slacker like all the others. So the opportunity is there for everyone in terms of education but it is how you want to get to it which is the real factor.

  • What’s the genre of this piece? What do you think is the purpose? What about the most likely audience?

    Do you see how any of the keyterms in the Cole and Omari essay apply? Since essay 3 asks you to read a text […]

    • Frederick Douglas’s book Narrative of Life is a nonfiction, he is retelling his experiences as a slave and his path towards freedom. His book also served as a critique of slavery. His intended audience was white people who were pro-slavery or people who simply didn’t believe that slavery was so harsh and unfair in the South. Douglass learned how to read and write at a great cost because of education he learns about oppressive and wrong nature of slavery. That’s the first intersectionality that Douglas noticed education and race. The last chapter, he talks about his escape and how he went North. He noticed that the North didn’t have slaves and wasn’t poor but rather a wealthy and thriving environment. Proving that for the success of a city or country slavery is not needed.

    • the genre of this piece is a biography,which he uses to share his personal experience of being a former slave. His purpose in this writing is to, as a former slave who escapes slave-holder for freedom , encourage those who are still in southern states under slavery to come out for freedom. at that time, even though he had fled out of the torturous slavery, many black people are still suffering from slavery and treated as castles. he wants to through literature wake up the black soul that is ready to rise. the key terms Douglass has in common with Cole and Omari is class. Black people were placed in a class where is equal to animals. Douglass was affected by education since he is able to read something related to abolishment of slavery which grants him a hope that the end of slavery can give him a new birth, no longer being a slave for a life. but race and class also affected his mind when he fled to North. he got no job because of his skin color. at present, race and class are still examples of the historical basis for contemporary conflict within a society. people are discriminated based on skin color and race. and their upward mobilities are restricted by those reasons. being able to read helps Douglass escape slavery, also makes him different from other slaves who are not educated at all. even former slave fled to North and got freedom, they still facing inequality like black people in middle class don’t get a sense of belonging to either white community or black community

    • The genre of Frederick Douglass’s writing is a narrative, and his purpose of writing this text is to let his readers know what it was like to live as a slave and later on a freed man. Other than to inform the readers, I think his intention was also to encourage African Americans slaves like himself, to use their very limited power to make a change in their lives. Some of the key terms in Cole and Omari’s essay that applied to Douglass’s essay are class, race, and education. Because of Douglass’s race, he was a slave owned by a slaveholder and treated as a property. Because of his class, he didn’t have the opportunity to be educated openly. Because of education (reading and writing), he revealed more about himself, more about freedom, and more about the new life. Douglass demonstrates the struggles of upward mobility as an African American when he talked about how he couldn’t find anyone who’s willing to teach him how to read or write, that he even asks the little kids to be his teachers. This shows how no one wants to see an African American to be educated, because they see African American linked with slavery and property. This makes it harder for African Americans to actually gain knowledge because they weren’t given the opportunity in the first place. Even if they really had some level of education, like Douglass eventually did, he had to pretend that he was knowledge-less because he was not allowed to have outside knowledge other than the information he needed for his work. This reflects the struggles for African Americans to achieve upward mobility, education was seen as essential criteria to reach that point, but even if an African American is educated, they cannot admit it. Therefore, they are left to stay in the same place as they are now.

    • The genre of this is an autobiography. I think that his intended audience is uninformed white people in the north. His purpose is to inform them of damaging effect of slavery and to convince them to abolish slavery. He also wanted to inform them of the negative impact on white slave owners as well. For example, he discusses his own owner, Mistress.
      “My Mistress, as I have said, a kind and tender-hearted women; and in the simplicity of her soul she commenced, when i first went to live with her, to treat me as she supposed one human being to treat another … slavery provided as injurious to her as it did to me … slavery soon proved its ability to divest her of these heavenly qualities. Under its influence, the tender heart become stone, and the lamblike deposition gave way to one of tiger-like fierceness” (Douglas 45-46).
      At first she was kind-hearted and treated slaves as any other person. But owning a slave changed her. When he first lived with her, she would teach him. But later she stopped. She become even more violent with him than her husband. The excerpt gave us a clear description of the horrendous experience of slavery and what a struggle is was to escape. Douglas even briefly mentions how he thought about staying because he did not want to leave his the friends he made behind. The treatment the slaves received was all based on one factor: the color of their skin. But education was a tremendous aid to this hardship. Douglas sought every possible channel to learn. He began by learning to wrote the four letters he learned while working. And later taunted one of the white kids and tricked him into showing him how to wrote the letters. Douglas Juxtaposes the African Americans in the south with the African Americans in the north. In the south, almost all the African Americans are slaves. But once he escapes and goes to the north, he see that African Americans are living in middle class and upper class neighborhoods and realizes that they can achieve social mobility.

    • I agree with my peers when they said that Fredrick Douglas’ piece is an autobiography. I say this simply because he speaks of himself and the life experiences as a slave. By giving his experiences, I believe he is pushing the idea of what it is to be a slave. Him learning how to read and write wasn’t anything easy–in fact it was far from easy. Not only did he need to find other teachers after his mistress gained a new sense of attitude, but the “teachers” he found weren’t any actual, certified teachers. “The plan which I adopted, and the one by which I was most successful, was that of making friends of all the little white boys whom I met in the street. As many of these as I could, I converted into teachers” (Douglas, 46). When Douglas soon becomes literate, he speaks of it as the worst thing to ever happen to him. On page 48, Douglas states how learning to read and write gave him some sort of realization of his “wretched conditions”. At times, Douglas states, he even felt like taking his own life. This narrative reminds me on the story of Adam and Eve, and if we made comparisons, we could view the slave owners as God. God told Adam and Eve not to eat from the certain tree that would give them knowledge of all good and evil, but eventually they did. The fruit of which they ate brought them to the realities of life–realities they shouldn’t and wouldn’t have known if they followed directions. Although I seriously doubt that this is the same reason why the white slave owners didn’t want slaves to read, I believe they connect. Douglas, like Adam and Eve now knew the reality of the harsh conditions which they lived upon.

  • This reading is a complicated and dense one, so if you find yourself struggling with it, that’s okay! We’ll work through it in class together.

    What is the thesis of this essay? Try to find one or two sentences […]

    • Cole and Omari’s thesis of the essay are ” The concept of intersectionality is used to explore the meaning of social class, and social class identity, in the lives of African Americans”. African Americans meaning of social class and identity are further elaborated on by explaining their history of class, their subjective experience of upward class social mobility, and the hidden costs of social mobility. These are shown through the type of education Black people receive to aid in their class of social mobility. The key terms of this paper are social mobility and class. Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. Cole and Omari use social mobility pertaining to Black people, showing how the type of education they receive affects their social class. The term Class is used to describe how there were classes of black people, leaving the blacks in a higher advantaged class or lower disadvantaged class. This is shown when Cole and Omari speak about Black people’s past, how even through slavery the lighter skin black people remained in a higher class and received special skills and freedom from slave owners. The effect of the three questions is that it provides a basis of what you are going to read about in each section. It answers each of the questions clearly such as the third question are there hidden costs of social mobility?, is answered by showing that the upward mobility of Black people often moved them out of Black culture because higher class Blacks would move into White neighborhoods, which led to Black people losing connections to their other family members of different classes. This connects to the previous reading by Rodriguez because Rodriguez compares the struggles of Black people to Hispanics by explaining how all Black people faced racism but there were classes of Black people due to the type of education they received. This compares to Cole and Omari because they explain the meaning of class to Black People through schools as their entryway to upward mobility.

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