• group work

    • Photography captures a moment and allows it to remain frozen in time, however, the value of the photo is not held in the image it preserves but in the emotion it maintains.

    • Thesis: Photographs capture a past moment in time that can be revisited but not relived.
      -Claudia, Hishaam, Isaiah, Gerald

    • Rivka replied 1 year ago

      Rivka, Arezu, Hosna, Zakar
      Thesis: Photography captures a pause in time that can later be viewed but never replaced. It reminds us that things in life are only temporary.

    • Desiree, Brandon, Hamza, Victoria

      Thesis: Photograph is used to capture a moment and the illusion of beauty in a timeless state. The photograph itself does not age but time goes on.

  • In the last 24 hours, I have been struggling to reconcile what I had imagined “Situating ourselves in English departments” to be about and how the readings approached that question.  I do not mean to critique the […]

    • Kristi replied 1 year ago

      Hey Sarah,

      I’m really glad you raised the point. These articles work to situate composition in the rich (and sometimes interesting) history of its function in the American university. However, I struggled with these articles in a similar way that you have; while the history can’t be ignored, it can’t be considered accurate for the current state of the departments. Rhetoric began in Harvard, crafted for the education of the rich, English-speaking, white male. Now, it must be more inclusive; it must be able to reach people’s of all classes, nationalities, races, and genders. That being said, I do appreciate Jean Ferguson Carr and Douglass Hesse’s attempts at grappling with what composition in a contemporary classroom looks like, and I think part of the reason it’s hard to fully recognize their versions of the English classroom because it’s evolving at a rapidly changing rate. I think Hesse’s ability to acknowledge that composition is no longer just about writing a 10 page academic essay (like it seemed to be years ago), but also writing arguments and ideas into a variety of genres. This seems to echo QC’s goals for composition, as well as some of what we have discussed in class.

      I guess, going from here, I want to question where are we situated within the “current” classroom? What does it look like? What is our role in it? And, more importantly, what are students getting from it?

    • As per Sarah’s comment, I was surprised at how directly the readings spoke to the focus of my response paper. Briefly, I’m considering whether creative writing and composition might offer different, but complementary, insights into our students’ aptitudes, interests, and areas of academic need. I think the idea of “inventing the university” is a useful catchall, but I wonder whether it obscures our role in the process—that is, inventing an accurate perception of the people we’re charged to instruct. Writing classes, as Carr points out, seem a point of exchange between academics and what she somewhat amusingly describes as the “ambient situation” of students lives. There’s a lot of potential here, I think, in terms of refining pedagogy, as this dynamic interaction complicates the expectations of scholarly “discipline.” Obviously, if we afford students a degree of agency in the classroom, we’re more likely to understand where they’re coming from.

      In this light, Carr and Hesse point to an irony in writing instruction—what was once a means for departments to assert their power has become both a vantage point for considering the fluidity of academic discourse and among the more vital venues for navigating that innocuous enough but deceptively oppressive assumption: what we think students should know. There’s plenty to talk about regarding creative writing and composition, the differences in the fields, and the degrees to which they extend from the conditions Hesse describes, but perhaps that’s best saved for class. I’m also interested in discussing practical approaches to what I suppose you could call pedagogical listening. It’s tough to genuinely listen to students and also tell them what they need to know—perhaps we can address this issue in light of Carr’s ideas about the relevancy of writing studies.

    • Hi Sarah – this week’s readings got me thinking, again, about the difference between writing/composition here and in Europe.

      A couple of weeks ago you mentioned that “the essay, from a young age is taught as thesis-antithesis-synthesis”, making it a discursive rather than persuasive format. Instead of focusing on the dialectics/the structure of this model of argumentation itself, I’d like to put emphasis on the fact that learning how to write takes place in high school, rather than in college.

      As part of my communication minor I had to attend a “writing lab”, which was mandatory for those of us who had not attended a classical lyceum (the only secondary education track that allowed a student access to any kind of Italian university until the 1970s). That class was mostly focused on style/grammar, rather than rhetoric. Widely speaking, writing classes are not mandatory for most major/minor tracks, both because professors rarely rely on writing assignments for evaluations, and because it is taken for granted that students enter college with an adequate preparation – although the kind of writing practiced in high school does not cover the formalities of academic writing – and, as I said before, the academic writing classes I took during my time as a graduate student did help me improve my general writing skills.

      While being aware of the history of the field is stimulating and can help us contextualize what it is that we are doing – I wonder if, as Kristi wrote, that can be “considered accurate for the current state of the departments” and personally does not address my biggest concern about teaching a composition class: the feeling that we are trying and pack in a semester a learning process that should gradually take place over a number of years.

  • Write about a photograph that interests you or means something to you.

    You may work on crafting a meaningful visual description, explore the content of the photograph, or discuss how the photograph came into […]

  • Here are some loose questions to help you think about how Guibert is treating “the photograph” he’s writing about and get your minds working on possibilities for your own essays.

    What topic or idea is Guibert […]

    • Rivka replied 1 year ago

      1. Guibert frequently talks about his mother aging. He is conveying that despite the photo, he couldn’t prevent her from aging. Even though a picture captures a moment in time, it won’t stop life from continuing and moving forward.
      2. despite the praise of photography, pictures actually capture a pause in time that displays a false perception of perfection.
      3. At first, Guibert describes photography as an “act of love” (10). As the essay progresses, he leans toward the negativity of photography. He thoroughly preps his mother for is the picture, which ended up being “perfect and false”, as he describes it (16). The process for taking the photo is time-consuming and planned. They spend a lot of time redoing his mother’s hair, make- up and wardrobe for the photo. In the end, the film ended up being empty. He understands a photograph as being able to artificially stop time to create a memorable moment.

    • Guibert is trying to talk about the idea of old age and appearance. Gulbert constantly talks about how beautiful his mother was “at the height of her beauty”(13). She was particularly beautiful during a photo session that she took when she was young. That picture captured her beauty and it was as if her beauty and age was frozen in time, while she continued to age and lose her beauty.

      A thesis could be: A picture only offers the illusion of beauty because you continue to age while the picture remains in a timeless state.

      Guibert understands a photograph to be an act of love. The process of photographing is to make everything as perfect as it can be. The model must be perfect, as perfect as the photographer believes and the background should be removed of anything distracting. The process is a long one.

    • 1) Guibert loves taking photographs of his mother while she was young. When his mother was younger, she pretended to not like getting photo’s taken of her. As she started aging however, she really didn’t like getting photo’s of her taken because her beauty started to go down as her hair became white and her husband didn’t let her dye it. Guibert is trying to say that a photograph captures a moment of your time in life which can only be from that moment and you may never get it back. Just like how his mother will never be that beautiful again.

      2) The thesis of this could be, A photograph captures one moment in life which can be viewed later on but never replaced.

      3) Guibert understands that a photograph has to have happiness in it. For example, he viewed his mother as beautiful in the beginning of the essay but as she started aging she wasn’t viewed as pretty and in the end she was viewed as beautiful again. That is because his mother is now happy again which brings love in the photograph which makes the photo pretty. He views the process of photography long because everything has to be perfect in the picture. During the course of the essay he he found out that in order to have beauty in a picture, there needs to be a message.

    • 1. Guibert focuses on photographs of his mother when she was younger. He explains that although she was very beautiful and young, that does not stop time from going on and his mother aging. Although life goes on and time goes on, the photograph will always be there and captured the moment in time where his mother was young a beautiful. Guibert is trying to say that a photograph will always be there to remember a moment, but you will never be able to actually relive that moment.
      2. A thesis could be “Photography can capture moments that are memorable and valuable, but we will never be able to relive those photos.”
      3. Guibert describes photos in a positive way. He even says they’re an “act of love” (10.) He believes that a photograph should resemble positivity and in a way be perfect. He describes the process of making photographs as a long one, because it has to be prepared perfectly. In order to make a perfect picture, all the distractions from the photo must be removed in order to bring all the attention to the main idea of the photo. Towards the end of the essay, he explains that it is not only about the photo itself, it is also about the message it gives.

    • 1) Guibert discusses the topics regarding aging as well as how one may be portrayed based on age. In Guibert text he discusses a photo of his mother during her younger years going on to discuss her beauty. This may for instance be used to discuss how her beauty will always be kept no matter how much his mother ages the picture will still last.
      2) Photography is used to pause time in a moment and allow for time to go on yet that photographic pause will always remain allowing one to see the future as well as the past.
      3) Guibert understands photography as a way of connecting people together. Perfection is key when it comes to photography. The perfect time, background, person and photographer.

    • 1. In the exert, Guibert discusses his mother’s beauty and his ability to capture it in the photograph he took. He emphasizes the importance of photographing his mother in her natural state by eliminating components that concealed her beauty in order to capture her youth. Guibert was able to look back on that moment even as she got older and he did not see beauty in her like he did before. The photograph symbolizes the ability of photography to freeze moments in time that we can look back on even though life continues after the photo is taken.

      2. Thesis: Photography represents moments depicting the natural state of its subjects that can be translated into lasting memories beyond the physical picture itself.

      3. To Guibert, a photograph is supposed to capture all aspects of the individual. He had a negative perception of his father’s methods of photography because he created a false image of his mother and did not accurately show her beauty as Guibert thought photography should. The process of photographing involves stripping the individual of the things that hide their true appearance. Guibert does this by changing his mother’s hair, clothes, and makeup and placing her in a simple background. Guibert’s thoughts on photography changes when it turns out that the film was blank and he was unable to get the physical copy of the photo. Guibert sees this as a good thing because he believed that the picture being framed and perfect in front of him would distort the memory of the moment the photo was taken and the efforts to create a natural and unfiltered setting.

    • 1. The topic/idea Guibert is trying to access by telling the story of photographing his mother is age. He tried to take the picture as a symbol of her youth and that nothing else mattered. He wanted to take the picture as a reminder of what life used to and how it should be. That with age, things start to fade like his mother. How as she gets older, she’ll lose her looks and develop wrinkles.
      2. Thesis: Pictures are used to capture certain moments in time that cannot be replicated. They can only be used to look back on as a representation of what that moment meant to you.
      3. Guibert understands that a photograph is an “act of love”. Something worth remembering and used to send a message. To make the picture perfect, he went through a whole process. Prepping his mother so that he captures her natural state. He rearranged the room so there weren’t any obstructions. He made sure his dad wasn’t there to ruin the atmosphere of what he was trying to capture. He tried to make everything so perfect. Although, his view of his mother changed during the essay as time went on.

    • 1) Guibert talks about the concept of aging and capturing beauty in its time. He talks about photographing his mother while she was still beautiful to preserve that moment in the aging process when she looked beautiful. He wanted to always have that moment in time, for when she is older and has changed even more.
      2) Thesis: The meaning and value of a photograph are not held in the moment it captures but in the message and emotion it conveys.
      3) In the beginning of the essay, Guibert says that photography is an “act of love” (10). He believes it is capturing a perfect, natural moment in time. He describes the process of photography to be a long one, requiring time to set up the background, the lighting, and the model/subject itself so everything is perfect. However, his opinion on photography changes throughout the course of the essay when he realizes that the picture he worked so hard to create was never taken, and is lost forever. He realizes that photography isn’t about capturing the image, especially if it requires extensive preparation because then it is false because it has been doctored and created in a specifically desired light/image. He realizes that photography is important because of what it says, and anything tailored, says only lies.

    • 1. The topic or idea that Guibert is trying to access by telling the story of photographing his mother is how someone’s appearance changes as they grow older. At first, he describes his mom as beautiful, and later he says that he can’t even look at her.
      2. Photography helps us capture a specific moment in our lives, which won’t happen again. It can be very memorable, reminding us of a story that has transpired in the past.
      3. Guibert believes that photographs should be taken with a lot of time and preparation. In his story, he makes sure his mother looks as perfect as possible, and alters lighting and objects in the frame. After he realizes that there was no picture in the camera, he notices that there is a story behind all pictures.

    • 1. Guibert through this personal essay is trying to convey what a photograph means to him, how he views it. He shows how a photograph is a moment in time, freezing that time, he explains can be done with a photograph. He explains this by saying how his mother was frozen in time her youth and beauty was captured, but as soon as that photograph was captured time continues and his mother ages and as he explained with wrinkles. He is trying to show the idea of how he views photography as important in his life in capturing his mother as he’d like to remember as young and beautiful.

      2. A possible thesis is, Photography’s purpose is capturing a moment in time allowing for that one moment to be frozen in time. After a photographs taken life is going to move on and fast, and photography will allow a person to relive that moment infinitely.

      3.Guibert holds photography of utter importance as he and his father are photographer. He explains he captured a picture of his mother when he was 18 years old and holds it of utmost importance. He hold it to importance because it captured who his mother represented to him in that time. He explains he made his father leave when he took the photograph because when he was around she was just his wife and not her own person. He wanted to capture her essence without her “hair” and “makeup” and her father. Thats what he feels a photograph is supposed to be a real person captured forever in that moment. Throughout the essay his idea of the process of photographing changed when he realized he took a blank picture of what he believed was the real essence of his mom. He called in the blank picture, “perfect and false”, different then what he described of the picture before as freezing a real moment in time. When he explained perfect and false meaning that after the picture was taken life moves on and time continues and the person is not going to stay in that moment forever.

    • 1. Guibert focuses on how the process of photographing can capture a moment that may seem unreal in real life. In this case, he talks about capturing her mother’s beauty and youth in a photograph, even though she is aging in real life. He begins by showing how his mother had no control over her image when his father photographed her. He didn’t let her wear makeup or dye her hair, and she was forced to smile (11). However, when Guibert photographed his mother, everything was natural. At the moment of the photograph, mother had an “imperceptible smile on her lips” of happiness (13). In that moment, Guibert was able to stop time and her process of aging. He knows that once this photo is taken, she will go back to being sad and resigned and give in to aging.
      2. Thesis: Photography has the ability to capture a moment and stop time because the photograph itself never ages while the elements in the photograph may be altered due to time.
      3. In the beginning, Guibert says “Photography is also an act of love” (10). He means that taking pictures of someone is a way to show a person you love them. This is why he took simple photographs of his mother and did not pay much attention. Later on, Guibert prepared her mother for that one photograph. He washed her hair, put light powder on her, picked her dress, and fixed the lighting. This shows how before, the process was simply just clicking a photograph but now, it is a really long process. Guibert also later realizes that a photograph can stop time and capture a moment. Even if the photograph itself does not exist, it can still make you capture the moment through other means, such as writing.

    • 1. When displaying his topic in his personal essay, Herve Guibert talks about photographing his mother. He talks about a photograph and compares it to aging and the attractiveness it possesses within the moment. When it comes to his mother, he lays out how beautiful she is at a certain era of her life and how it changes throughout aging. But the significant point that’s taken out of all this is that the photograph can only be lived through once and time will fly by and sooner she wouldnt look the same and the memo is that you cant get it back.
      2. I believe the thesis is “Photography reminds you of how times were so different and when you capture an image, it can be a special moment but that special moment cant be relived again, only to be reminded that things inlife are temporary.
      3. Guibert compares photography to the “Act of love” as he mentions it in the first line of his essay. He says this because in every photograph he takes of his mother, he wants to make sure everything within the photograph is perfect and that his mother looks almost flawless. A photograph captures a time and stops that time but if a message isnt displayed it has no value.

    • 1. By telling us the story of his mother’s photograph, Guibert is trying to convey that even though taking a photograph of a certain event can preserve that moment as memory, but the time will move on and that moment will vanish only leaving us with a mere memory.
      2. Picture can be used to preserve that exact moment as a memory, but the time goes on and that memory vanishes.
      3. Guibert believes that, when taking a photograph, the subject and everything that surrounds the subject should be perfect, and each element of the photograph should be just perfect, such as the subject, the time, and the background.

    • The topic or idea that Guibert is trying to get to by telling the story of how he photographed his mother is that although photographs allow for moments to remain frozen in time, we can’t actually stop time from going on. As much as he wanted to always see his mother as beautiful as he saw her when she was being photographed, he couldn’t always see her that way and couldn’t stop the harsh reality of age.

      A thesis I would create for the essay would be: As much as we would like to preserve a moment in such a way that it remains frozen in time, eventually time will have to go on and the moment will never stay the same way we wanted it to.

      Guibert understands a photograph as being something beautiful and something that has to be just right and prepared for perfection. The process includes making the subject of his photograph appear as beautiful and in the image and likeness that the photographer would like it to be, removing any distractions, setting perfect lighting, etc. However, at the end of the essay, he refers to this process of preparation as an almost “diabolical practice”.

    • 1. The story that Gilbert is trying to share with us is the story behind the “Perfect Picture” of his mother that he is trying to photograph. He tries paint over the tensions and problem both he an his mother have with his father and the fact that his mother’s attractiveness and youth is fading away. He wanted capture a moment that would give off a feeling of serenity.

      2. Gilbert views a photograph as a pause in time that can later be viewed but will not reveal the story being the frozen moment.

      3. He reveals that whenever there was a photograph of his mother, the picture would stubbornly reveal only a part of her. This is an idea that he seems to like because he wanted his mother to be captured as happy and not withering and conflicted because of her relationship with her husband. This is why Gilbert goes through a process when photographing her. So he makes sure it is at the right place, time, and with good lighting.

  • Please post your response to the prompt below by 5pm 29 November.

    Walter Benjamin, “A Short History of Photography””

    Summarize Benjamin’s claims about each of the following key concepts.  After each summ […]

    • 1) Benjamin’s claim regarding the difference between eye’s sight and len’s sight is that when looking at photography one can view different spectrums or aspects of the photo making things more lucid. While on the other hand when pictures are looked at from enlarged help provide the technological advantages and magic behind the historical aspects on the photo. I have to agree with this because when one is able to look up close it allows for more perceptions behind the photo while when it is viewed from a different direction one can only view it from that one point not getting much out of the photo.
      2) Benjamin discusses the Aura of an object as a small space of web and time that is so unique because of its distance however close it may be. Every day the desire to perceive the object grows further this can be proven through pictures and newspapers. I can stand by this idea because when looking at news articles they are arguments/ discussions that discuss relevant topics going on in the world that writes perceive and discuss in their own views.
      3) The role of the caption as Benjamin explains is to discuss the photo in a small perspective in order to enhance the viewer. I can agree with why this is necessary because it provides a small amount of incite while leaving the rest up to the viewer’s perspective.

    • 1. Benjamin believes there is a difference between the eye’s lens and the camera’s lens. Benjamin argues, “It is indeed a different nature that speaks to the camera from the one which addresses the eye” (7). When we look at something through our eyes, our human consciousness views it in one way unconsciously and as an individual. However, in photography, we have a change in perception. “Photography with its various aids (lenses, enlargements) can reveal this moment” (7). Photography shows details and structural qualities which allow us analyze the picture and “makes aware for the first time the optical unconscious” (7). We no longer look at something and view is as an individual but rather as “collective formations” (23). I agree with Benjamin’s claim because when we experience something through our eyes, it is limited because we cannot replay the moment. However, if a moment is captured we can keep looking back to it and interpreting it in different ways.
      2. According to Benjamin, aura means “a peculiar web of space and time: the unique manifestation of a distance, however near it may be” (20). Benjamin means that an aura is a unique moment. However, today do not want that distance to remain so they try to bring things closer to themselves and “overcome uniqueness in every situation by reproducing it” (20). This reproduction causes “the destruction of its aura” because there is sameness in things to a great extent that even the “unique is made to yield up its uniqueness” (21). I agree with this because Benjamin is saying that pictures are being reproduced in newspapers and other technological advancements that they are no longer unique or have an aura since there are many copies.
      3. Benjamin claims that captions play an important role when the photograph is no longer authentic. Captions are used in “creating a photography which literarises the relationships of life” because without captions it seems as though the photographer cannot read his own picture, making him illiterate (25). I agree that captions are important because when we see a shocking picture, we may be in a “standstill” as Benjamin puts it, and we cannot observe the meaning of the photograph.

    • 1. Benjamin describes the eye’s sight as consciously aware and analytical of what is seen. It is different from the lens’s sight because it fails to capture in that moment the unconscious events occurring through the lens. The moment has to be captured first through the lens the moment it happens in order for the eye to process what is seen. The lens’s sight is about depicting a moment in time in its untouched and natural state while the eye’s sight goes through a process to describe the details of the moment. I agree with this concept because the eye’s sight cannot be fixed on a single moment while the lens can take that moment and make it last longer than our eyes can. The lens’s sight is what allows us to use our eye sight to analyze and interpret what we see so both work together to bring meaning to a photo.

      2. The aura of an object is described by Benjamin as a unique concept that differentiates and creates variance among photographs. Now, people are taking the aura out of photography through reproduction and being confined to what is close to them. This reproduction of the same types of pictures have developed to become “unique” in the eyes of people today. Uniqueness is seen in reproduction rather than originality and creativity. I agree with this concept because originality is lacking in photography due to people producing the same types of pictures with little to no differences in style and creativity. Reproduction of certain styles are praised and that takes the individuality out of photography.

      3. Benjamin believes that captions are important in enhancing the meaning of a photograph and increases the viewers their attraction to it. I disagree with this statement because I think that if a painting is enticing on its own it doesn’t need a caption to enhance it. When looking at a photo I’m personally more interested in the details of it rather than the caption.

    • 1. Benjamin says that the difference between the eye’s sight and the camera’s sight is that the camera can show us some things that the naked eye probably couldn’t, because of technological advancements and different angles. The example given is about how a camera can capture and reveal the moment a person starts to walk. I agree with this statement because sometimes it is hard to see and process an event that just happened, however with a camera that can take a picture or record, you can pause and play it back and see things you wouldn’t at the moment.
      2. Benjamin believes that an aura of an object is when it has a unique presence in space and time. However, aura has disappeared because mostly everything can be made again, or reproduced. I agree with this statement because there is less originality, especially in internet pictures that use previous moments.
      3. Benjamin claims that nowadays captions are utilized more than they were in the past, and are now something that is required in art. Captions make it clear of what you’re looking at, and has become important. I agree with his statement because a title or caption can help you understand something better, even if you are having trouble with understanding it.

    • Rivka replied 1 year ago

      1. Benjamin says, “Instead of a space worked through by a human consciousness there appears one which is affected unconsciously” (7). To help explain this concept, he compares it to a walking example. With sight, you can describe how a person walks. But with a lens you can describe the fraction of a second when a person starts to walk. The lens gives awareness to the unconscious. I agree with this claim. A photograph captures a specific moment in time that would otherwise be forgotten. A photo can give a detailed description that a person may have missed when he saw he it with his own eyes.
      2. Benjamin says, “What is aura? A peculiar web of space and time: the unique manifestation of a distance, however near it may be” (20). He is explaining that the aura of an object has uniqueness to it. People try to destroy the uniqueness by trying to view an object as closely as possible. Pictures in newspapers show this idea of pictures being reproduced, which results in the loss of their uniqueness. I agree with Benjamin. A reproduction destroys the distinctiveness of a photo.
      3. Benjamin says, “The role of a caption literarises the relationships of life and without which photographic construction would remain stuck in the approximate” (25). He’s explaining that captions put the relationship between the photo and life into words. Without it, the photo would be incomplete. I somewhat agree with what he’s saying. If the photo is of something the viewer doesn’t recognize, a caption would help him appreciate the picture. But if the photo is something the viewer has knowledge of, no caption is needed. In general, I believe that a “picture is worth a thousand words”, and therefore doesn’t need caption.

    • 1) Benjamin has claims that there is difference between the eye’s sight and the lens’s sight. He explains that they are “different above all in the sense that instead of a space worked through by a human consciousness there appears one which is affected unconsciously”. He gives us the example of a person walking. When we see someone walk we can describe it because we see it first-hand. But if we look at a still picture, its exercising the unconscious. We can’t possibly know what was going on. I agree with Benjamin because still-pictures limits our knowledge of sight.

      2) Benjamin describes the aura in an analogy which states it’s “A peculiar web of space and time: the unique manifestation of a distance, however near it may be”. He also claims that we don’t bring things close to ourselves. That by always replicating, we lose our uniqueness and its aura all together. I agree with his statement. We always see replicas of photographs everywhere that we lose our sense of interest and the uniqueness it was trying to portray.

      3) Benjamin talks about the role of the caption. The caption can us understand the photograph better. He specifically states that the caption must come in when “The camera becomes smaller and smaller, ever readier to capture transitory and secret pictures which are able to shock the associative mechanism of the observer to a standstill”. I agree with Benjamin. I believe the caption is a useful mechanism to help the viewer be more in depth with the picture being still.

    • 1. When it comes to the difference between the eye’s sight and the lense sight, Benjamin says, “It is indeed a different nature that speaks to the camera from the one which addresses the eye; different above all in the sense that instead of a space worked through by a human consciousness there appears one which is affected unconsciously.” I believe he’s trying to assess that what is captured by a camera lense is unaffected by human interpretation or any inference of the mind, whereas what is captured by the eye’s sight is immediately broken down and analyzed and is no longer deemed untouched or unaffected. I agree with his perspective on this as once moments caught in photographs are looked at for too long, they lose their rawness and what made them unique, as well as lose appreciation.

      2. Benjamin describes the aura of an object as, “A peculiar web of space and time: the unique manifestation of a distance, however near it may be.” He continues by giving instances of what an aura of a photograph might be, such as the outline of a mountain range on a summer noon, or the shadow a branch casts on the observer of this scene as a whole. He says auras are a unique moment in space and time, but are losing their value as they have become too easy to replicate over and over again by people.

      3. Benjamin believes the role of a caption is to “create a photography which literarises the relationships of life and without which photographic construction would remain stuck in the approximate.” By this he means that without captions, people would forever wonder at potential meanings and relationships between different aspects of the photograph. Captions provide meaning and background for photographs that produce a lot of questions.

    • 1. Benjamin argues that the difference between the eye’s sight and the lenses sight is that the lense can show more than the naked eye. He believes that one can see much more and different angles through a lense. I agree with his statement because when you see something from the naked eye you don’t see all of the specific details. Where as you can see something through a lense much clearer because you can see the details of the surroundings on a smaller scale. For example, if I was to walk on the street and see one person on top of the other I would think that they’re fighting. But, if I were to see that same situation through a lense I could see that there was a log and the boy probably tripped and fell on the other person.

      2. Benjamin believes that an aura is a particular web of space and time. In other words, Benjamin believes an aura is the urge to bring something closer and we reproduce things. I agree with his argument because reproducing something takes out the value of the originality to it. If there are lots of copies of one thing than that takes away the value of it.

      3. Benjamin argues that the role of the caption is to help the reader know what the picture is about. The caption helps the observer to have a better idea of what the photograph is about. I agree with his argument because I believe that when someone looks at a photograph their mind could go in all different directions in order to figure out what the photograph is trying to say. However, if there’s a caption on the photo than the viewer knows how to interpret specific things that are shown.

    • Walter Benjamin has three concepts in which he delves in to deep detail about. The first concept is the difference between the eye’s sight and the lens’ sight. Benjamin forces his readers to infer that there is a huge difference in the perspective that the camera gives to us as opposed to the way we see things with our eyes. He uses the concept of a man walking, in that we can describe the way a person walks, but if we were to snap a picture we could see more and from a different perspective view that person from the moment he starts walking. I agree with this because lenses invite those who are moving too fast in the world to stop and appreciate something so minuscule and unappreciated. Another key concept is Benjamin’s opinion on the aura surrounding an object. Benjamin believes that the aura surrounding an object is destroyed by the attempt to recreate it and to attempt to make it permanent. I agree with the author here because when people view a beautiful landscape they are succumbed with emotion and have a certain way they feel about it, however when taking a picture of that moment to show to those that have not experienced it with you they say would say something along the lines of “wow that must be beautiful” or, “wish I went”. They did not feel the emotion that you felt or the aura of the landscape. The third is that the role of the caption helps readers and viewers know exactly what they are looking at. He says that the caption helps viewers know exactly what the photograph was meant to show. I agree with this because often times when we look at something we’re not completely sure which part is most important. After reading a caption, everything starts to make sense.

    • 1) Benjamin claims that lens’s sight and eye’s sight are different in that lens’s sight provides you with a clear snapshot of the scene/moment, while the human eye and memory is flawed and affected by the conscious. Benjamin says that lens’s sight provides a clear undoctored perspective of a scene that is lasting and precise, the human sight, however, is affected by perception and memory and is not absolute or always reliable. I agree with Benjamin because human sight is limited and subject to alteration from memory and perception, a picture, however, is not subject to change and remains a clear, captured image.
      2)Benjamin views the aura as a web of space and time, a unique aspect of each picture. However, today this uniqueness, this aura, is disappearing through the reproduction of the same pictures over and over, an abundance of similarity and sameness in pictures eliminates the unique aura. I agree with this because nowadays, most pictures are just copies or lookalikes of others, and there is nothing unique or special in copies.
      3) Benjamin says that captions are used to provide a meaning to the viewer, and can strengthen the relationship between the viewer and the picture and make it more clear and impactful. I don’t necessarily agree with this, I believe the intended meaning of a photograph is irrelevant in most cases and the important thing is the viewer’s conception, not the intended one. However, I do think that if one looks at a photograph alone without looking at the caption and then looks at the caption, it can possibly provide another perspective in addition to one’s own, and then you have seen two sides of the picture, and more than one perspective is always better to have.

    • 1. The difference between the eye’s sight and the lens’ sight, according to Benjamin is that they see different things. When looking through the lens or at a camera we don’t see the same as seeing through our own eyes. When we see something we physically see it whereas looking at a picture we don’t see what is going on but we can still make out what is going on. This is because we unconsciously make out what is going on through our past experiences. The camera lens captures what is really happening and our eyes capture what we believe Is happening.
      2. According to Benjamin, an aura of an object is a web of space and time and the unique manifestation of distance however near it may be. Benjamin also says how aura is unique and that now people are changing the aura of paintings. People are replicating the art so that it can be closer and closer to them. This decreased the aura of the painting because there are so many copies for everyone to have that it loses its value in essence.
      3. The role of the caption is to help the viewer understand the picture more. The picture itself may not always be enough to get through to the viewer, which is when a caption would be needed. A caption would help the person seeing the art understand something that is essential to know but may not be clear in the painting. Sometimes it can provide details that will help the viewer to understand it better

    • 1. Benjamin claim that “indeed a different nature that speaks to the camera, from the one that adresses the eye”. This means that a person is able to describe what you see but is much more specific when it comes to photography that can only account for each fraction of the time. With our eyes, our perceptions of what we see are affected by our “human consciousness” while a photographically lenses freezes a certain fraction of what you see and lets you absorb only that specific moment. I agree with Benjamin in that seeing through our eyes is all about memory really. We don’t get to relive and re-see a certain moment but we do recall it through memory, however our mind is not always correct in when we remember we just remember the last time we recalled that moment, so is it ever exactly they way you imagined it as first? Plus a photographic lense freezes in a certain time which allows your to be recall what you see just as the way you say it in front of you in a photograph.

      2. Benjamin associates aura which an atmosphere, as he cleansed it and seperated the objects from it. This kind of aura “A peculiar web of of space and time: the unique manifestation of a distance” . Benjamin uses the example of the aura of “the outline of a mountain range on the horizon or the branch which cast its shadow on the observer”. This kind of aura is unique and fulfilling but loses its value when replicated again. I agree with Benjamins statement of how the we try bring things closer to us in proximity and how we tend to separate object from a scene. This is made more clear when Benjamin exemplifies how in newspapers, certain auras are replicated in illustrations and therefore lose their uniqueness.

      3. While a photograph is stuck in a certain time without any context, the caption steps in to “Create a photography which literalists the relationship of life and without which photographic construction would remain a constant.” This means the caption is important because it serves as an explanation for the photo which we would not have gotten with just by looking at it. I actually kind of disagree with this because yes the caption can be helpful when context is needed but I don’t believe that a photograph is incomplete without it. A photograph has a story that cannot always be replicated exactly in words, sometimes you just need your eyes and brain to do the explaining.

    • Walter Benjamin argues the difference between eye’s sight and lens sight is that, by using the lens’s sight an individual can see an image more critically and with a lot more angles which would lead to many different interpretation through unique perception with each angle, and even see things that cannot be seen through and individuals eye’s sight. i agree with his argument because usually it is difficult to process the event as we see it, and the same process becomes soo much easier when it is in a photograph form because we could see more than we would see in live action.
      Walter Benjamin describes the aura of an object is its unique presence in the time and space. The aura can also be defined as the surrounding of the object. the aura of an object can be destroyed because every scene can be recreated, whether it is being manipulated by a computer, or the actual scene s being created using actual objects. and I agree with his argument because in the current society the aura is being destroyed by the use of cliches, for example in the remakes of the Star Wars series.
      Walter Benjamin argues that captions are being used more often than they were used in the past. Captions help the audience understand what they are looking at. i agree with his argument because i feel that everything needs a caption in order for to be understood.

    • 1. When it comes to the difference between the eye’s sight and the lens sight, Benjamin Walter says, “. It is
      indeed a different nature that speaks to the camera from the one which addresses the eye; different above all in the sense that instead of a space worked through by a human consciousness there appears one which is affected unconsciously. I agree with his claim because the photo tells the ultimate truth and everything we see from the naked eye is what we believe.
      2. When it comes to the aura of an object, he believes that an aura is something that is very very unique but people start to make replicas and they recreate and it loses its value and i also agree with him on those terms. Majority of photographs nowadays are edited and they dont seem special anymore.
      3. When it comes to the roles of the captions, they enhance the understanding of the photograph. Sometimes the caption is necessary to give the reader a glimpse because without it, it can be hard to understand and i also agree with this claim. “The camera becomes smaller and smaller, ever readier to capture transitory and secret pictures which are able to shock the associative mechanism of the observer to a standstill. At this poin tthe caption must step in.” I agree that it can be complementary.

  • A reminder to everyone, conferences are continuing tomorrow.  We will begin in our classroom.  Depending on how on-time the conferences run, we will move to my office in KP 344 around Claudia or Sofia ( […]

  • Sarah commented on the page, on the site Teaching College Writing 1 year ago

    Responding primarily to Kristi and Giselle —

    I am also glad that you, Giselle, have returned to a fact you’ve previously brought up in discussion: that teaching high school in New York is necessarily geared toward the Regent’s Exam. If I, as a teacher, or my institution were evaluated based on this, then I imagine I would also teach in this…[Read more]

  • Sarah wrote a new post, Update, on the site The Visual World, Fall 2016 1 year ago

    Hi everyone.  Just to let you know, I have updated various sections of the site.  The course schedule, documents, and readings are now up-to-date.  Conference schedule has been posted below.  Please try to sta […]

  • Please email all reading responses to me as doc or pdf file attachments by the times written on the handouts.


  • 8 / Hamza

    8:15 / Gerald

    8:30 / Ashley

    8:45 / Isaiah

    9 / Stephanie

    9:15 / Victoria

    9:30 / Claudia

    9:45 / Sofia

    10 / Desiree

    10:15 / Brandon Navas

    If anyone would like to meet with me […]

  • Monday

    8 / Aqsa

    8:15 / Hosna

    8:30 / Rivka

    8:45 / Arezu

    9 / Hishaam

    9:15 / Shoshana

    9:30 / Zakar

    9:45 / Naomi

  • Teaching to the Text Message (Sophie’s post)

    There were two strains of thought in Selsberg’s NYT op-ed that I want to pull out: the impact of concise writing on the student, and its impact on the t […]

  • Sarah commented on the page, on the site Teaching College Writing 1 year, 1 month ago

    Hi Stefano,
    You’ve certainly covered a lot of ground, so I’ll try to respond to a few pieces and also present a response to Gee in the form of questions–it seems like the densest and potentially most controversial reading of the week, so it makes sense to open it for more discussion.

    I, too, have struggled with blogs–this semester and other…[Read more]

  • Class tomorrow is cancelled due to illness. Please EMAIL ME YOUR ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHIES so that I can send you proper feedback.

    Thank you.

    EMAIL –

  • Sarah commented on the page, on the site Teaching College Writing 1 year, 1 month ago

    In your response, Frankie, as you unpack patchwriting within your framework and within the theoretical framework of the readings, you bring up the idea that the key reason for patchwriting is an insufficient understanding of the source material. As I was reading the Howard, et al. article, I squared and starred those moments in which they…[Read more]

  • post away!

    • My research question is: how are body images for women displayed in the world/ by the media? and how does this affect people today?
      An interesting article I found for my research is Body image disturbance and relationship satisfaction among college students. The main idea of the article is to show how college students thoughts about body image were distorted because of what society has portrayed as an “ideal” body and how that has changed their level of satisfaction in relationships. The author decides to gather information through an experiment. Paap takes an online survey from 81 males and 201 females measuring their relationship satisfaction, body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, self-esteem, and thoughts about weight loss. The results for women included that they had greater body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, self-esteem, and thoughts about weight loss. The results for men was that they were dissatisfied with their partners size which lead to less perceived partner relationship satisfaction. This provides a foundation of how society’s view of body image which isn’t realistic has caused people in real life to be unhappy. Given the experimentation located at the University of Colorado Denver, the results can help me prove my point that society’s view on body image doesn’t convey costiveness to others.

    • How is beauty defined in advertisements/ other forms of media and how does this effect the way women act?

      A source that I found for my research paper is called “It’s the image that’s imperfect: Advertising and Its impact on Women”, by Indhu Rajagopal and Jennifer Gales. The main idea is that advertisements provide viewers with a false reality of how women should look. Most advertisements show women who are thin and beautiful, making this the norm. When women see this, they believe that this is how they need to look, and therefore begin to see flaws in themselves in comparison to these photo-shopped images. Various examples of advertisement and literature are brought in to show what affect it as on women’s body image. When advertisements stereotype women as thin, tall and beautiful in appearance, it gives viewers a deceptive view on how they should look. This results in poor body image, diets, eating disorders and the like. The authors suggest that if women grew up with self confidence in themselves and were taught that advertisements aren’t truthful, maybe they wouldn’t be affected by the unattainable ads their being compared to.

    • Research Question: Should celebrities and athletes be seen as role models?
      I came across an interesting article about my research question about if celebrities should be considered role models. This particular article was interesting because it gave two sides to the argument. There were two articles in the document, one discussing why athletes shouldn’t be considered role models, and the other explaining why they should. The viewpoints are coming from celebrity athletes themselves, Charles Barkley and Jackie Joyner-Kersee. Charles Barkley was a NBA basketball player and now is on TNT, and Kersee was a track and field athlete who was in the Olympics. Charles Barkley thinks that celebrities and athletes should not be considered as role models because that responsibility should be given to the parents. He believes that they’re getting paid to play sports and do their jobs, and not raise anyone’s children in any way. Having the responsibility of being a role model to youth and other people is another job that they shouldn’t take. On the other hand, Kersee thinks that that celebrities are role models, whether they want to or not. She emphasizes that there is always someone looking up to an athlete or celebrity, and that there is a huge impact on someone else’s life. Celebrities and athletes may help parents out in teaching the kids something. The way this article helps me in my essay is that it provides me multiple viewpoints and evidence to try to prove whether or not celebrities or athletes should be considered to be role models.

    • My research question is: How does the United States create a multi-polar division between its people when it comes to politics? How can this relate to Immigration Policies?

      I found a text entitled “Migration and Citizenship” By Rainer Bauböck which discusses the steps and process it takes in becoming a citizen in Europe. Bauböck breaks down these steps by chapters the chapters are titled “Citizenship and migration, The legal status of immigrants and their access to nationality, EU citizenship and the status of third country nationals and Political participation, mobilisation and representation of immigrants and their offspring in Europe”. This book is for people who are trying to immigrate to Europe. It can be helpful to them in many ways by discussing the way in which they can go about become a citizen. The authors usage of out side information and sources helps build up the rules to citizenship. How this novel relates to my research is that it allows for a background knowledge in the process it takes for immigrants to fulfill citizenship. This can help be the backbone towards my argument.

    • Research Question: How is violence portrayed in gaming/ could these visuals contribute to violent behavior in people?

      I came across a Library Journal Article by M Brandon Robbins, arguing that violence in video games and violence in people can be should be seen as correlative rather than causative. Robbins refers to the devastating tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School that took place 4 years ago, and has been stirring up controversy ever since. Robbins mentions that once it was brought into light that the two Columbine High School shooters were gamers, it was reinforced again and again in the media. The exact thing happened with Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza. Robbins contemplates why this is relevant, as 80% of Americans within Lanza’s age group play video games, and violent ones at that. If violent video games were the cause of violent behavior, that would mean 80% of American 20 year-olds would be committing murder right now. Robbins also asserts that real-life contact sports such as football inflict violent behavior in players as well, but people aren’t fighting to ban sports as they are violent video games. In this way, playing violent video games doesn’t contribute to people behaving violently anymore than sports do. All in all, Robbins argues that violent video games alone shouldn’t carry the burden and accountability of mass shootings and murders, and that individual people should be blamed instead. This article is important to my research question because it strongly supports my perspective on how violence in videogames isn’t the sole reason for violence in people, and most of the time, isn’t a reason for it at all.

    • Research Question: How is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) portrayed by the media? How does this affect those diagnosed with A.D.H.D., and people’s conception of A.D.H.D. in general?

      An article that I found useful for my research paper, is “The Selling of Attention Deficit Disorder” by Alan Schwarz. The main idea of the article is that A.D.H.D. diagnoses’ have skyrocketed because A.D.H.D. and the medications associated with it are being promoted and advertised everywhere by drug manufacturers, and are therefore causing people to think they have a condition and a need for medication that they don’t. The article discusses the various ways that A.D.H.D. drug manufacturers advertise and push people to buy their products, by creating false and general criteria of A.D.H.D, and then promoting their medications as the solution. Companies have subsidized comic books that demystify the disorder and use superheroes to promote medication. They also use celebrities for marketing campaigns and online quizzes to promote treatment. The article mentions how drug manufacturers have advertised the disorder and the medications as something they’re not, and how this has created an inaccurate idea of what A.D.H.D is and who has it. The article also sheds light on what effect this can have on those misdiagnosed, including addiction, unwelcome side effects, and an altered perception of themselves and their abilities. I found this article useful because it discusses the agenda behind the portrayal of A.D.H.D. in the media, and what results this has led to, as well as how it has affected people’s lives.

    • My research question is how is racism perpetuated by today’s media?

      One source I found was an online was a peer reviewed journal called, “Priming Implicit Racism in Television News: Visual and Verbal Limitations on Diversity,” by John Sonnett. This journal takes a sociologist approach to explain racism. Focusing on hurricane Katrina, Sonnett explains how dramatic events can bring racism to public consciousness. The media of the United States is mostly white owned so this results in racial propaganda. What I found most useful about this journal was how Sonnett explains the process of how news are tampered with, edited through white perspective, and then shown to everyone else. He also compares and contrasts different new channels and what they showed after hurricane Katrina. While blacks were viewed as criminals or weak, whites were viewed as helpful. This sets a stage for my essay because I can show how media, such as television news in this case, influences our mindsets. Not only do we become more prone to stereotypes, we also get used to implicit racism.

    • Research Question: How does the violence depicted in the media affect the lives children and adolescents?

      I came this journal called “The Journal of Negro Education.” One of their articles was explaining the affect violence has on children. They explained that in low-income children, they tend to be more associated with television, video games, etc. due to the fact that they aren’t affiliated with any extracurricular activities. Studies have even shown that even with an array amount of video games, kids tend to purchase the ones with the most violence. When they’re exposed to that violence, they begin to develop violent tendencies. This then begins to show in their day to day life. Violence exposure is portrayed everywhere in the media. Children pick up on it in movies and then try to recreate what they’ve watched. This can initially put a lot of children in danger of self-harm and harm on others as well.

    • How has the representation of African Americans in the media affected the way they are viewed by others?

      The article “Television and Social Identity: Race Representation as “White” Accommodation” by Gail E. Coover presents a study conducted to show the representation/interaction of African Americans on television and the way stereotypes or prejudice are enhanced by white viewers as a result. The study revealed that white viewers respond better to positive interactions between blacks and whites and also respond well to positive portrayals of African Americans. The study shows the importance of media portrayal in the perception of African Americans. The study also provided me with the viewpoint of representation of interactions between African Americans and other races on television rather than just focusing on how African Americans are shown. This information made me think about looking into that aspect of representation. The study can be used in my paper to show that portrayals of African Americans in television greatly influences the way they are viewed by other races and the comfort level of those races in interacting with them. It can also be used to show that there are certain behaviors that are acceptable and not acceptable in the portrayal of African Americans on television which dictates how other races view African Americans.

    • research question: what is rape culture and how does it effect us today?

      The article “Rape Culture: Encyclopedia of Rape” by Merril D. Smith explains to readers exactly what rape culture is. Explaining that instead of teaching people not to rape, we are taught how to prevent rape. This article explains the problems with rape culture, and how women are socialized into believing that rape is natural for men to do, and that they can’t help themselves. Instead of teaching people not to drug our drinks and not to sexually attack someone, we are teaching women how to prevent being attacked. Smith also explains how rape myths feed into the reason that rape culture seems to be getting worse. She also explains that women are accused of subconsiciously liking the attack, or they are blamed for reasons such as the clothing they are wearing or that they were drinking alcohol. This lays the platform for my research because it shows how rape culture is the reason rape is taken lightly at times.

    • Are technological advances such as the internet, in its entirety, detrimental to society?

      While technology is adulated for its many beneficial affects on our society regarding connections, having a voice, better learning resources, or just entertainment, is it worth considering any possible dangers of computers and internet as well?
      While my ultimate claim is that with just like everything— too much of a good thing is never an good thing, to which things such as technology, computers, and the internet perfectly exemplify. However, in my essay I think that the best way to support my claim is not just using evidence so support my argument but I should do the opposite. In order for my argument to be more persuasive, I will try to get her as much published statistics and research that are counter arguments, dissect and analyze them, and ultimately explain in depth why these facts don’t necessarily mean that technology is entirely harmful in the modern world. I will utilize counter evidences and arguments to further enhance my argument. One research article that I will use is a study conducted by the university of California, Los Angeles. In the article, ” In our digital world, are young people losing the ability to read emotions?” by Stuart Wolpert, it provides statistics that claim how that children’s decline in social skills and behavior are proportionally correlated to the amount of time spent on the digital media rather than face to face interactions. I think that this is a very crucial piece of evidence, or counter argument so to say, in that there are many other stories and claims as such. But this will help me in a way in which I will explain how that in each piece of evidence, there are other factors that need to be taken in to account— to which we have to try to find and elimate, and this will help us understand why technology is not a bad concept when certain aspects are taken under consideration.

    • Research topic: Should there be a minimum weight limit to modeling?

      In an article called, “Skinny Shaming Sucks Too, You Know”, beauty editor of the Huffington Post Dana Oliver proceeds to make her arguments about how the media is now focusing on degrading skinny women to praise more curvy and bigger women. This is a useful article because it sides with the fact of how the media degrades skinny women and therefore it changes the medias view and taste. It directly relates to the minimum weight limit of modeling because of the connection the media and modeling have. If the media degrades skinny women, why would modeling agency’s, who’s purpose is to make clothing look good, hire someone society does not perceive as good looking? The medias affect on societies taste affects the minimum weight limit that are put to modeling.

    • What kind of impact do athletes have on the young children of society?

      One source that I came across was an article by Kay Ireland called, “The Pros & Cons of Sports Athletes on Kids”. In this article, the author discusses how athletes serving as role models for the youth can have both its positives and negatives. Although athletes may have great influence on children to work hard to be the best they can be, there is also a dark side that gets looked at and sometimes the negative actions of these athletes may overshadow everything else that particular athlete may do that can be beneficial to themselves as well as to their fans. The topics of influence that were discussed are sportsmanship, fitness, drug use, and lifestyle. This article is beneficial and useful because it discusses examples of how athletes can really impact the ways of the youth that look up to them. When kids have a favorite player or athlete, then they are driven to copy the moves of that player and follow their lives and want to be like that favorite player. So it is essential that these athletes pay attention to their own actions because there are easily influenced kids paying attention to their every move just to be like them and the media is always promoting the everyday lives of these athletes as well which doesn’t make anything easy to hide.

    • Research Question: How is Islam portrayed and why is it portrayed in this way?

      A source i found online called “Impact of 9/11 on Muslim Americans”. Obviously the title is exactly what the article is about. In this article, the author talks about the Muslim Americans and how they were effected after the 9/11 attacks. In particular, he discusses the economic impacts on Muslim Americans, the widespread discrimination and harassment of Muslims, the dehumanization of Muslims, harsh political views on Muslim countries, etc. The event of 9/11 changed the country tremendously. Now Muslims living in america have to face many hardships for a crime they didn’t do or had zero intention to. Muslims had to face tough interrogation processes. “Scholars estimate that 200,000 to 500,000 Muslims have been affected by this process. Over 18,000 Muslims have been deported. More than 15,000 Muslims have been detained or arrested.” You can definitely tell that 9/11 had a huge impact on Muslim Americans. Obviously everyone took precautionary measures on Muslims but it isnt fair that they’re being treated this way. Only the people who commit these horrific crimes should shall suffer. This article is very helpful for my research essay because it provides me with exactly what my audience needs to know to answer my question. It answers the question which is how and why is Islam being portrayed in such a way? The theme for Islam is peace so why are people that promote peace suffering discrimination? Blame the media

  • Classwork Annotations


    Berger, John. “Chapter 1.” Ways of Seeing. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973. N. pag. Print.

    Ways of Seeing by John Berger focuses more on the art of seei […]

    • Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1972.
      This book is categorized in the humanities and art history departments. Berger’s main thesis is that even though every image symbolizes a way of seeing, our assessment of an image also depends on our way of seeing. He goes on to discuss the difference between a painting and a photograph. He says that looking at specific parts of an image is interpretation. He thinks about seeing as interpretation. The sources Gregory uses are images. These images include paintings, photographs, advertisements and newspapers. He also uses charts to show statistics. The intended audience is everyone. This book is based on a BBC television series, meant to serve as an awareness document for everyone to see. Berger uses various rhetorical strategies. One strategy he uses is the way he formatted his work. He analyzes a quote, takes it apart and puts it back together to form his own interpretation. Berger also uses images to counteract and agree with his argument. Showing both points of view allows to reader to form his own opinion.

      Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. (Fifth Edition) Princeton University
      Press, 2015.
      This book is categorized in the science department. Gregory’s main thesis is that perceptions prove hypotheses. He says that sight is a hypothesis because it gives us some information, but not all of it. The intended audience is psychology students. The evidence that Gregory uses are insights and information from other psychologists and philosophers. He mostly uses general sources. He first uses research, disagrees with it, and then states his own theory. Gregory uses a few images to help explain his theory on the visual system. He also uses various rhetorical strategies. One strategy that he uses is that he writes in first person. It shows his personal view on the idea, showing readers that he’s writing with purpose. Another strategy Gregory applies is his use of paradox. In various parts of the book, he states facts from sources that seem contradictory, but are actually true.

    • Berger, John, Sven Blomberg, Chris Fox, Michael Dibb, and Richard Hollis. Ways of Seeing. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973. Print.
      Berger’s book is about the way we see things and how we perceive them. The author argues how one’s knowledge, beliefs, and interpretations changes how they see something. Berger critiques how man-made things such as the camera, paintings, motion pictures interprets both the artists point of view of the photograph and the viewers perception of the autograph. The perspectives throughout the book shows that there’s no centre. Berger goes on to talk about how the uniqueness of images is destroyed by providing different perspectives throughout the text. The book itself is not hard to understand and uses rather informal or everyday language that attracts a wide variety of people intrigued by art history and humanities. This book is produced by the publication company of Penguin Books. Berger uses images and statistical charts to convey his views on the way people interpret art.
      By Arezu, Rivka, Desiree, and Ashley

    • Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed., Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1997.
      In his book, Gregory uses a scientific standpoint to highlight the psychological process of seeing through vision, and interpretation by brain. By introducing, disproving, and supporting other psychologists’ theories, Gregory arrives at the conclusion that perceptions are “hypotheses” because they are ambiguous. Perceptions of the things we see are never certain because they depend on our interpretation. Through the use of pictures, diagrams, and scientific evidence he communicates his ideas of how the eye and the brain work together to form perception.

      Gerald Brandon Aqsa Isiah

    • Berger, John. Ways of Seeing: The Psychology if Seeing, 5th ed. Prinction University.

      In his novel, Berger focuses on how how our perceptions and interpretation of an image transform our way of seeing. Using the study of humanities as a platform, Berger disseccts the history of art to illustrate how personal experience affects our ways of seeing. By providing evidence such as painting, photographs, films, advertisement, newspapers, and statistics, to show how our perceptions of art have progressed. He explifies hat just like a camera; an overseer can see from many different perspectives (pp. 16-17). By methodically introducing contexts of other people and sources, he interpret and analyzeing them and setting up a basis for his arguments. Berger explains that when we see, we interpret simultaneously. Berger of s a pot, painter, and novelist.

      Hosna, Claudia, Victoria, Hamza

    • Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing Fifth Edition. Princeton University Press, 1966.

      Gregory approaches the topic of sight and perception from a scientific manner. He defines operation of sight as electrochemical pulses that are signals from the senses. However he acknowledges that what one sees and what one understands are different functions. Gregory claims that perceptions are hypotheses. He suggests this based on the knowledge that retinal images are subject to various interpretations. Gregory uses past theories as evidence and puts them in contrast with his own theories. The intended audience for the book are scholars interested in the fields of or related to psychology, physiology, and neuroscience.

  • Hi all.  To be clear, you’re not annotating the printouts as in marking up theses, claims, etc. as we did with Koolhaas.  You are writing an entry for annotated bibliography that includes citational information i […]

    • Desiree Yadidi

      Ways Of Seeing By John Berger

      Citation: Berger, John. Ways Of Seeing . London, The British Broadcasting Corpration.

      The Thesis in the Book is “ It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it” (Page 7). Berger’s overall point thought the novel is to try and get readers to understand that what one sees provides more and ultimately creates a interpretation based on what is see which is quicker then words. The main audience the author is trying to aim for is students studying the arts, art history, and humanities. The novel is mass-produced which also means that more views can relate or are interested in reading about the idea and or topic. The author provides images as one source of evidence. These images help to convey the approach the author is trying to portray to the audience. The author also provides excerpts of each painter’s ideas and perceptions towards how and why they created this painting. After stating or discussing the images or quotes he then goes on to analyze each topic further into his prospective. There is clearly great linking between paragraphs and ideas thought the book making it easier for the reader to follow the arguments path and direction. John Berger is an English art critic, novelist, painter and poet. He is a man that changed the way he viewed the world.

      Eye and Brain The Psychology of Seeing By Richard L. Gregory
      Citation: Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain. 5th ed. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1997. Print.

      The thesis in the novel is “ We have only to open our eyes, and spread before us lies a banquet of colours and shapes, shadows, and textures: a pageant of rewarding and threatening objects, miraculously captured by sight.” (Page 1). This novel discusses how the visual world relates to different body parts and different senses. The ultimate audience for the book would be students studying brain psychology, psychology in general and people that are interested in science. Gregory goes ahead to discuss this topic by using pictures, diagrams and quotes to explain his theory behind this topic. After he states the facts he then goes on to analyze each concept and ultimately using linking strategies merge this idea and create an argument. Richard L. Gregory was a Psychologist that also studied human brain activity. He is a professor that teaches about these ideas and discussions.

    • Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain The Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed., Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1966.

      Richard L. Gregory a psychologist and professor. His book discusses that your perception and what you see revolves around science.. Perception is said to be hypotheses, and it is caused by the chemicals that are received by the brain. He mentions many theories proposed by other people, and says how they aren’t all correct. Many diagrams and pictures are present. Gregory’s book is geared towards Psychology students, who’d like to learn about the science of seeing, or other people who are interested in how the brain and eye works.

      Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London, British Broadcasting Corporarion, 1972.

      The purpose of Berger’s book is to elaborate on how the way we see things are affected by our own knowledge and beliefs. He talks mostly about how there are many different interpretations of paintings and pictures, and tries to tell us how art should be looked at. The audience for the book is anyone who is studying fine art and cinema, or whoever is interested in that. Evidence that Berger includes is many images, pictures, paintings and painters as well. In addition, charts and many statistics are present to emphasize his point.

    • Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1972.
      Berger derives many of his ideas from the television series Ways of Seeing. His book is based on the premise that the way we see things is affected by our knowledge and beliefs. Berger’s thesis statement can be identified on the page 7, remarking that “it is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it.” The book focuses on images as sights that have been regenerated. His intended audience are people of all ages, essentially, with an interest in art history. The kinds of evidence Berger employs throughout the book consist of examples arguing that photographic tactics for re-creating images has affected the way in which older art is seen. He provides paintings that he touches on to clarify to the reader his views and ideas about them. He also provides various direct quotes from painters or those analyzing the works of painters.. Berger uses this strategy along with the strategy of emphasizing his own ideas in contrast to the ideas he is criticizing or touching upon.

      Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing Fifth Edition. Princeton University Press, 1966.
      Gregory takes a scientific approach in his book, and utilizes the ideas of past theorists and philosophers about psychology. Gregory’s thesis can be found on page 1 continuing into page 2, where he asserts that “all the brain receives are minute electrochemical pulses of various frequencies, as signals from the senses. The signals must be read by rules and knowledge to make sense. Yet what we see, what we know, or believe, can be very different. As science advances, differences between perceived appearances and accepted realities become ever greater.” The intended audience for the book are scholars interested in the fields of or related to psychology, physiology, and neuroscience. Gregory provides theories by past philosophers as evidence and puts them in contrast with one another as well as in contrast with his own ideas. Gregory strategically goes through theory by theory to illustrate how the perception of the relationship between the eye and the brain has changed over history.

    • Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1997

      Richard L. Gregory is a psychologist and a professor who studies between brain activity and the eye. Using a scientific approach, Gregory develops hypothesis’ about the association between the brain and our visions, and how our perceptions are dictated by them. Aimed at students who are studying the psychology or science behind seeing, Gregory uses multiple notable theories of other sources and uses them as a platform to refuse them and display his own theories. Gregory uses concrete definitions, figure diagrams, quotes and theories to which he dissects in order to explain and prove his own

      Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London, British Broadcasting Corporation, Penguin Books, 1972.

      In the book, based on the BBC Television series, John Berger seeks to differenciate the differences in images as photography, paintings, video, film, advertisement, and more. He claims that the physical act of seeing and perceiving such art is all based on the individuals interpretations. While researching in his field of study in Humanities and the history of art, he provides evidence such as paintings, film newspapers, photography, surveys, and statistics to illustrate that just like a camera; an observer can see from many different perspectives (pp. 16-17). Aimed at students who are studying as art historians or humanities, Berger methodically and strategically expresses his ideas by introducing contexts, interpreting and analyzing them, and then setting up basis’ for his arguments to which he repeats this process throughout the entirety of the novel. “… Although every image embodies a way of seeing, our perceptions or appreciation of an image depends also upon our own way of seeing” (pp. 10). Berger is a poet, painter and novelist.

    • Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain; the Psychology of Seeing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. Print.

      Eye and the Brain by Richard L. Gregory focuses on the psychology of seeing. Gregory writes about the scientific background of how we see on a day to day basis. Gregory’s intended audience are people who are studying psychology and the brain. People who are interested in neuroscience would also be interested in this article. Gregory says “As science advances, differences between perceived appearances and accepted realities become ever greater.” This lays the platform for the book, and links appearances and what is actually happening, or reality. Gregory says that seeing is basically electromagnetic pulses. Using words such as vision, perceptions, and ambiguity, Gregory links perceptions to reality.

      Berger, John. “Chapter 1.” Ways of Seeing. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973. N. pag. Print.

      Ways of Seeing by John Berger focuses more on the art of seeing. By using artwork such as pictures, paintings, and motion pictures, Berger puts in the effects of personal experience to what we are seeing. He explains that every time we see, we interpret simultaneously. He says that seeing is interpreting. Berger also explains that when looking at an image, we are only getting a view from one perspective. When looking at things in real life, it is very different. We are able to see things from many different angles and many different viewpoints. Berger says “The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe” (Page 8). By saying this Berger begins his claim that seeing leads to who we are and what we believe and believe in. His thesis is It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it” (Page 7). His audience is art historians.

    • Berger, J., Blomberg, S., Fox, C., Dibb, M., Hollis, R. Ways of Seeing. British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1973.
      The main argument made is that the ways something is viewed is based on the interpretation of the viewer. This allows for multiple meanings of an image as there can be many interpretations depending on the person. This can be attributed to the knowledge, beliefs, and experiences of the viewer. This idea is represented through various sources of evidence such as the analysis of paintings, advertisements, and photographs which show how the elements of such images attribute to the interpretations made. The evidence is sometimes coupled with context to give background knowledge to the image, then interpreted and tied back into the thesis. The authors create a sense of importance of the readers’ own experiences and knowledge that make their interpretations unique to their own lives. This factor along with the simplistic use of language is what establishes the intended audience of the book which is meant for everyone as it is easy to follow and can be related back to the reader.

      Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed., Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1997.
      In the novel Gregory argues the process that goes in the seeing from a scientific standpoint that highlights the psychological reasonings behind the way we view images. The perceptions of images are described as “hypotheses” that guide interpretation through the eye and brain. The hypothesis picks up on the properties of images from the eye and is processed by the brain in order to arrive at the appopriate behavior to identify and interpret what the image is. Gregory arrives at this theory by first explaining past ideas on the process of seeing by psychologists and philosophers then either rejecting or accepting some part of those theories to arrive at his own. Visuals are also used to communicate Gregory’s ideas as well as scientific evidence on the biological function of the eye and brain. This scientific approach with scholarly sources to sight makes the novel geared toward those interested in psychology, sociology, or other sciences that want to observe a scientific approach to sight.

    • Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1997. Print.

      Gregory’s book is about how the eye and brain work together to form vision and perception. Since Gregory is a psychologist and a professor, he takes a scientific approach to explain the theories related to vision. By introducing these theories, we get to know where Gregory stands and what he believes in. He not only supports some theories, but also disapproves of some and explains why they are wrong. This rhetorical strategy that Gregory uses, comparing and contrasting is very important because it leads up to the thesis. The thesis is, “A central theme of this book is that perceptions are much like hypotheses of science. Hypotheses of science do not only have ambiguities; they can also have or produce, distortions, paradoxes, or fictions” (page 13). Perception is viewed as hypotheses because it is predictive but never certain. Another rhetorical strategy Gregory uses is explaining a process. He explains what happens when we see something (vision) and how it is interpreted by the brain (perception). Gregory shares his knowledge with a limited audience. He aims at students studying psychology and neuroscience, and psychologists. The wording and level of the text shows this since it is scientific and scholarly. There is also evidence displayed throughout the text, such as pictures, figures, and diagrams that support or prove what Gregory is saying.

      Berger, John, Sven Blomberg, Chris Fox, Michael Dibb, and Richard Hollis. Ways of Seeing. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973. Print.

      John Berger is an art critic, painter, and novelist. Berger’s book is about the way we see things and how we see them. His thesis is, “The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe” (page 8). Berger talks about how one’s knowledge, beliefs, and interpretations changes the way they see something. Berger critiques how man-made things such as the camera, paintings, motion pictures changed many views. Instead of one perspective, there were many perspectives and angles. These things also showed that there was no centre. Berger goes on to talk about how the uniqueness of image is destroyed and causes the meaning to change. The audience Berger targets are students studying art history, and humanities. The book itself is not hard to understand and uses rather informal or everyday language. It also includes evidence such as pictures, paintings, magazines, charts. The charts show statistics while the other pictures act as a visual representation of what Berger is saying. Berger also uses strategies of comparing and contrasting, and describing. He compares the views before the camera was created and compare it to after, and describes the impact and effect of it.

    • Eye and Brain
      Citation: Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain. The Psychology of seeing, 5th edition, Princeton University Press, 1997, Princeton, New Jersey.
      The book that Gregory wrote identifies how vision is viewed through the scientific perspective. Gregory decides to format his writing by identifying facts and beliefs of intelligent scholars and supporting his reasons for disagreeing with them. The thesis of the writing is, “As science advances, differences between perceived appearances and accepted realities become even greater” (page 2). The author decides to support his thesis by explaining how technological advancement has proves former intelligent scholars’ ideas wrong. He decides to support his beliefs by bringing in new technology and explaining how behaviorists and other psychologist are wrong. For example, on page three he talks about how a behaviorist’s perspective is like throwing the baby out with the bath water. Meaning that nothing good came out through that psychologist’s approach. This book would be appealing for students who are into to psychology and science due to all of the perspectives and observations.

      Ways of Seeing
      Citation: Berger, John. Ways of Seeing, British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1972, Great Britain.
      The book that Gerger decided to write about has to do with vision and how it is perceived through images and paintings. Berger’s thesis is, “It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it” (page 7). The author supports his thesis by explaining the relationship of what we see and what we know. The author uses images, newspapers, and ads as evidence for his claims. For example, on page thirteen Berger shows the reader the art historian’s interpretation of the painting, and disagrees with it explaining how seeing a picture visually can have more thought into it than one would think. The audience for this book would be students; specifically those who study art history.

    • Gerald Arzola

      Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing
      Princeton University Press, 1997.

      Gregory discusses the scientific works going on inside the brain and offers a very unique perspective on, well, perspective. He starts off his first page strong where the 3-sentence thesis is found crawling at the bottom of the first page and continuing onto the second, “All the brain receives are minute electrochemical pulses of various frequencies, as signals from the senses. The signals must be read by rules and knowledge to make sense. Yet what we see, and what we know, or believe can be very different”. Gregory states his thoughts on how the brain affects what we see and how it changes our own reality and he does so in a very straight forward factual way with maybe one or two idioms slipped in. He boldly uses the works and studies of others to further prove his thesis by either approving the works of others and applying it to his own thoughts on the matter, or simply disapproving their work and critiquing all their mistakes. Surely this was meant to catch the eye of students or people trying to gain more knowledge of subjects in the same psychology field.

      Berger, John. Ways of Seeing
      British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1977

      In a very interesting spin, what was once on television is now on paper. Berger along with four other people state their thesis in a very forthright manner on the eight numbered page of the book, “The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe”. Clearly they mean to speak about how the prior knowledge a person has, directly impacts on how the brain translates what the eye sees. In a very fun and interesting manner with lots of pictures, Berger and his group are trying to enlighten anyone who is curious and willing to pick up the book and read. Berger and the others use various pictures to get their point across but they also manage to quote an author and thoroughly explain and compare their own beliefs with that of the authors.

    • Richard L. Gregory. Eye and Brain The Psychology of Seeing Princeton University
      Press, 1966
      Richard Gregory is a psychologist and a professor. Gregory’s novel discusses how people see things. He discusses how the eye and the brain function, which allows people to actually see things. His approach is a very scientific one. Gregory writes to those interested in studying psychology or the idea of perception. Throughout his writing Gregory instills to the readers his personal
      view of sight. He does this by providing, disproving, and/or even backing up some theories. When he does this, we are able to see his point of view. Perception is described as a hypothesis because of its uncertainty and ability to be different things. Gregory
      goes on to explain to the reader how it is exactly we see things, by stating that when we see something, that image is then interpreted and filtered by our brains.

    • Citation : Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. Princeton University Press, 1997.
      Richard Gregory, a psychologist and a professor. He discusses the way people see various features. He most likely targets psychology students who are amateurs in the course. He takes a very scientific approach on this novel. He talks specifically about how perceptions are drawn from hypotheses’s, bases on past experience and unconscious interference. Throughout his writing, he quotes other psychologists. He also mentions the eye and brain and how they function together to create perception and that is the main idea in his novel. He used others theories and refuted them and mentioned his own and backed it up with details.

      Citation: Berger, John. Ways of Seeing, British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1972.
      John Berger is a novelist as well as a critic to art. He takes a different approach from Gregory. Berger uses many examples from paintings and images and explained how different features from an image is perceived in those images. His target audience is mostly everyone.

    • He also talks about the difference between a camera vs painting. His main point is “seeing is interpreting.” Its all about the person. His/her past attracts a specific meaning from an image or something in detail. Berger gives the readers a lot of meaning because their prior knowledge and own experience make their interpretations distinct and unique to their life. ^

    • Gregory, Richard L. Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1997.

      In the essay The Psychology of Seeing, the author Richard Gregory discusses the scientific approach to a person sight and what they view. He explains vision and sight as electromagnetic pulse and explains how thats gets transferred to sight in the brain. As well he debunks the theories of paradigms of perception such as Behaviorism, gestalt psychology, and cognitive psychology to introduce his own ideas of the way people see and view. He describes and explains that perception is a hypothesis. His targeted audience is most likely pscycology students.

      Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London, British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books, 1972.

      John Berger writes in Ways of Seeing based on a television program for BBC. He describes seeing in a more of interpretative way. He shows how the painter and the viewer both see it but because of their different life experiences and history they view it differently. He’s writing for the a general audience making it entertaining and an interesting and easy read. He utilizes pictures including paintings, photograph, newspapers, articles, and charts to convey messages in a simple and interesting manner.

    • Ways of Seeing, By John Berger

      Citation: Berger, John et al. Ways of Seeing. London, England, British Broadcasting Corporation, 1973.

      John Berger’s book is meant to discuss the ways in which we see and understand the world around us. In his book, he explains how the way we see and view things is how we shape ourselves, the world, and everything in between. His thesis is “It is seeing which establishes our place in the surrounding world; we explain that world with words, but words can never undo the fact that we are surrounded by it.” He uses art/paintings, interpretations of them, and history and inventions (camera) in relation to one another as evidence. He makes his point more agreeable by presenting scenarios that the reader can relate to, such as seeing a loved one. His intended audience could possible be students of humanities or art, or anyone who is interested in reading the book.

      Eye and Brain The Psychology of Seeing By Richard L. Gregory

      Citation: Gregory, R. L. Eye and Brain; the Psychology of Seeing. 5th ed., Princeton , NJ, Princeton University Press, 1966.

      Richard L. Gregory discusses the process and concept of seeing in Eye and Brain. His thesis is presented in the third paragraph where it says “All the brain receives are minute electrochemical pulses of various frequencies, as signals for the senses. The signals must be read by rules and knowledge to make sense. Yet what we see and what we know, or believe, can be very different.” Gregory uses past theories on sight and psychology in comparison and relation to his modern view and knowledge, as well as supporting images, for evidence. His intended audience is possibly psychology or neurology students.

  • Sarah commented on the page, on the site Teaching College Writing 1 year, 1 month ago

    I think you’ve both identified in yourselves and in a broader context the resistance to grammar instruction or correction, also highlighted in the readings. However, Allison, you make and have been making a really relevant point, that I think Micciche also makes — that teaching grammar and sentence construction is foundation to teaching clarity…[Read more]

  • Please post your questions (Blog 6) here.  These are drafts for your research so try to consider what you’re interested in research in terms of the visual.  We will discuss as we move forward.

    • Two questions I would be interested in researching for my research paper:
      1. How is violence portrayed in the media/ how might the media be considered selective in what it chooses to show?
      2. How are celebrities/famous people portrayed by the media and how does the media control how the public views them?
      Sources to consider: news on television and social media, articles, magazines.

    • Two questions I would be interested in for my research project are:
      1) How are body images for women displayed in the world/ by the media? and how does this affect teens today?
      2) What is the meaning of fashion today by the media? and how does the that manipulate others into buying new trends in fashion?
      I would get sources from magazines, social media, and television.

    • Research questions:
      1. How does social media affect the way adolescents view their lifestyle expectations?
      2. How has the representation of race in the media affected our perception of the way we view others?

      Sources: social media, news, magazines, journals, previous research studies, television

    • Questions I would be interested in researching for my research paper:
      1. What effect do advertisements have on consumers and how is it visually important?
      2. How do celebrities/social media effect how teenagers view themselves and go about their everyday lives?

      Sources for investigation: academic journals, online database, social media, newspapers.

    • Questions that I would consider for my research essay:
      1. How does the media affect what adolescents value? Are we brainwashed to to value materialism?
      2. How much affect does body image really have on us? Are we consciousness of the way it plays a role in our lives?
      Sources could include: magazines, news, social media, television, and statistics (research).

    • Research questions:
      1. How does media affect what we think rape culture is and how it can be prevented?
      2. How does rape culture give us wrong information about rape?

      sources include: online database, social media, news, television

    • Research Questions:
      1. Should athletes and celebrities be seen as role models to youth? Or what effect do they have?
      2. Is the media affecting how we see different people in society?
      Sources: articles in database or news blogs, videos

    • Research Questions
      1.What are the crucial ages of children/ adolescents being affected by their surroundings/ nurture, and how does the impact of their upbringing affect them as a person?

      2.People who commit mass acts of brutality and killings, what generally do they all have in common? How was their upbringing and what could potentially be a linking factor between people who have perpetrated these acts?

      Sources: newspapers, Journals, articles, news

    • Research Questions:
      1. Does the legal system we have placed truly provide “justice” for all, or does it show favoritism?

      2. What are the ramifications of the increase usage of social media? What is it doing to the children of the next generation?

      Sources: Newspapers, Articles, Journals, online databases, case studies,

    • Research Questions:
      1. Should the government fund more money into low income housing?
      2. Should America adopt the British custom of students taking a gap year?

      Sources: Articles, Statistics, Graphs

    • Research questions:
      1) How is islam and muslims portrayed on the media and how propaganda plays a role?
      2) How and why is the media portraying muslims in such a way ?
      Sources: Articles , journals, online databases, newspapers

    • Research Questions to consider:
      1. Does today’s media reflect and depict society’s racism/sexism? If so, how?
      2. Is the internet beneficial for children and what are the effects of it?
      Sources: Newspaper, Articles, Online Database, Journals, Magazines

    • Research questions:
      1. What kind of impact do athletes have on the young children of society?
      2. How easy is it to get access into the everyday lives of those athletes that kids look up to and praise in order to motivate those kids?
      Sources: articles, magazines, media

    • 1. How does the media alter your perspective on how the “perfect body” should look through explicit images of women models ?
      2. Has social media affected children’s goals and aspirations in a negative way through the viewing of how celebrities today interact?
      Sources: online database, magazines, newspaper

    • Research questionsI am considering:
      1. How does social media (music) affect the way adolescents view their lifestyle expectations?
      2. How dose the actions of celebrities contribute in this ideology of the expected lifestyles?
      sources: magazines, articles, media, music,

    • 1. how is Internet effecting the children in 21st century? Are children getting smarter (or more socialized) because of the Internet?
      2. What is life for muslim Americans like in the U.S. after September 11, 2001?
      3. how is pollution effection our day-to-day life?

      sources: online database, magazines, newspapers, journals.

    • How has the portrayal of marijuana in the media changed over time? How has that affected the public’s view?

      How is mental illness portrayed by the media and how is it seen today? What affect does this have on children and adolescents diagnosed with mental illnesses?

      Sources: newspaper articles, commercials/television, online articles, laws

    • Research Questions

      Are more people interested in having modern technology developed into their homes?

      Are more people interested in modern design or traditional? Does it have to do with age?

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